Kearney, a famous consulting firm, once estimated that:
China needs to invest more than 100 billion US dollars to establish an efficient and safe cold chain logistics system.
That’s only a small number.
The world’s largest gold miner
Recently, Chile’s fruit tycoon, Hernan galsese, is a bit upset.
Two years ago, the cherizi in his hand could still be sold for one kilogram, two or even five yuan in China. “Cherizi freedom” once became a hot topic among urban white-collar workers.
Today, its price has been slashed, and it is still despised to sell by Jin.
It was not the market or friendly businessmen who defeated galsese, but a circular from the center for Disease Control and prevention of Liangxi District, Wuxi City
Like frightened birds, people vote with their feet one after another, forcing the association of Chilean fruit exporters (asoex) to send people to China urgently to put out the fire.
Also pressed is New Zealand’s trade minister, David Parker. After China strengthened the cold chain control due to the epidemic situation, some foreign media described Parker as a cold sweat.
The reason why Chile and New Zealand are so nervous is that in recent years, the Chinese people who eat all over the world have become their biggest investors.
Statistics show that Chinese people eat more than 70% of cherries in the world. Of these, 90% are from Chile, and one in every 10 is branded by the galsese family.
Just before the outbreak, China had just replaced the United States as New Zealand’s largest beef export market.
Beef and cherries are just a drop in the ocean of the $90 billion that Chinese people import each year.
Although we are the world’s largest producer of fruits and vegetables, aquatic products and meat, we also eat one third of the world’s aquatic products and half of the world’s pork.
In fact, our country eats more aquatic products than the other five continents combined.
Many of them need to be imported. Some of them are not available in China, such as salmon and frozen white shrimp. Some of them are not as good as imported ones in quality and cost, such as salmon.
There are also such things as pig’s waist and chicken’s feet, which Chinese people treat as treasures and Westerners discard as worn-out shoes.
It is estimated that the Chinese eat 28 billion chicken feet every year, while our annual sales of broilers are less than 10 billion. The difference is at the level of 10 billion.
In addition, the domestic from time to time to a classical swine fever or something, leaving a gap, also need to import to fill. In 2020, a swine flu outbreak will lead to a shortage of domestic pork, and the import volume will soar by 108%.
Not only pork, China’s imports of chicken and beef from abroad are soaring in 2020. This is only a microcosm of the growth of China’s food imports in the past decade.
Since 2009, the scale of China’s imported food has been growing in double digits almost every year, far exceeding the growth rate of GDP in the same period.
Importing these foods requires a huge cold chain system.
Unfortunately, in 2020, China will replace the United States as the world’s largest importer of refrigerated food. But the backward cold chain logistics not only prevents us from eating all over the world, but also casts a shadow on our food safety.
The gap between Chinese and western cold chain logistics
What is the gap between China’s cold chain logistics and that of the west?
As early as 1939, the United States had more than 2000 refrigerated vehicles. And we didn’t have 3000 until 2007.
Although we have been catching up since then, until 2019, the total number of refrigerated vehicles in China is only 214000, with an average of 6500 people.
In the United States, on average, 500 people have a refrigerator car.
In terms of cold storage, although we have built a lot in recent years, the total volume (105 million cubic meters) has leaped to the third place in the world, second only to India and the United States.
Yes, you’re right. That’s a lot of us
India’s cold storage capacity is 1.5 times of ours
But in terms of per capita (0.132 cubic meters), we are only one eighth of the Netherlands, one fourth of the United States, and even far behind Mauritius.
This group of data comes from the International Association of refrigerated warehouses (IARW). The author calculated that the total amount and per capita are not equal, but it is enough to reflect our gap.
Backward construction directly affects the circulation efficiency of our cold chain.
According to the data from the cold chain Committee of the China Federation of things, our cold chain circulation rates of fruits and vegetables, meat and aquatic products are only 22%, 34% and 41% respectively. In Europe and the United States, it is more than 95%, and meat is 100%.
In other words, most of our fruits and vegetables, meat and aquatic products are “naked” at room temperature.
You may think it’s OK, but the damage is incalculable. In Europe and the United States, the cold chain loss rate of fresh agricultural products is less than 5%, and in China, it is more than 12%.
Because the cold chain is not enough, we have 1/3 vegetables and 1/4 fruit suck, and we lose over 100 billion yuan annually.
This is especially painful in a country like ours, where there are too many people and little land, food is not abundant, and a large number of agricultural products are imported from abroad every year.
What’s more, cold chain logistics not only determines the quality of agricultural products, but also affects many industries such as medicine, chemical industry and electronics.
For example, our common vaccines need to be transported at 2-8 ℃, and Pfizer’s new crown vaccines need to be stored at – 70 ℃!
In addition, many chips also need cold chain transportation.
The gap between the macro level and the micro level is doubled.
There is no Chinese enterprise on the list of the world’s top ten cold chain giants newly released by IARW. In the top ten, the United States holds five seats, New Zealand two, Japan and Mexico one each.
Lineage in the United States, which ranks first, has a capacity of 50.66 million cubic meters, almost half that of China. And Sinotrans cold chain logistics, which ranks the highest in China, has only 2.74 million cubic meters, only 1 / 20 of lineage’s.
The bigger gap is still in consciousness
Before 2008, there was almost no concept of cold chain logistics in China.
James rice, who used to be the head of Tyson Foods in China, the world’s largest meat processing plant, still remembers the scene when he first arrived in China
“On a hot summer day, tons of feathered frozen chicken, wrapped in thick blankets, are put on a flatbed truck, waiting for a long journey across most of China.”
The lack of cold chain directly forced the ambitious Tyson food to shrink in a few big cities in China.
When Hormel, another meat giant, first entered China, it intended to outsource logistics as it did in the United States. But they found that they could not find a suitable cold chain partner in China. In the end, we had to build it ourselves.
It was not until 2008, driven by the Beijing Olympic Games, that China really ushered in the era of cold chain logistics.
During this period, although the capacity of our cold storage and the number of refrigerated trucks have increased by leaps and bounds, many problems have still been exposed due to the long history of debt.
The most prominent problem is chain breaking.
In foreign countries, cold chain transportation is uninterrupted. But in our country, the vast majority of cold chain logistics are broken chain state.
On the one hand, it is because we started late, invested less, the concentration of the whole industry is low, the strength of the enterprise is weak, and we can not do the whole cold chain.
Data show that the industry concentration of China’s top 100 cold chain enterprises is 56%. In contrast, the United States has only five major cold chain giants, accounting for more than 60% of the national market.
On the other hand, many enterprises do not know enough about cold chain. Some even turn off the air conditioner during transportation in order to save cost, leading to food deterioration.
In 2012, Bright Dairy Distribution of fresh milk was exposed rancidity deterioration, shocked the whole country. Afterwards, the milk delivery company admitted that the air conditioning was turned off on the way of delivery due to staff dereliction of duty.
Food deterioration, eat at most diarrhea. The vaccine goes bad. It’s killing people.
In 2016, 570 million yuan worth of illegal vaccines were sold from Shandong to 24 provinces and cities without refrigeration. This includes the rabies vaccine which can save people’s lives in case of emergency.
The backward situation and a series of cold chain accidents have aroused the national attention to the construction of cold chain logistics.
In 2019, cold chain logistics will attend the meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee. Before and after that, a large number of new refrigerators sprang up in major ports and cities across the country.
With the popularity of the fresh food market, traditional logistics enterprises such as Sinotrans and Shunfeng, as well as emerging e-commerce companies such as Jingdong and Suning are actively competing for food in the cold chain market.
A pattern of mending the weaknesses of the whole country is quietly taking shape.
In June 2020, in Nansha, Guangzhou, where Mr. Huo Yingdong bought 30000 mu of land, a cold chain project, which can be called the largest in China, was officially capped.
The total designed storage capacity of 460000 tons is 60000 tons more than the largest cold storage in Dalian port.
90 kilometers away from Nansha port, it is Jiangnan fruit and vegetable wholesale market, the largest fruit and vegetable wholesale market in China and even Southeast Asia. More than 70% of the country’s imported fruits are distributed here.
After the completion of Nansha cold chain project, it will radiate the Pearl River Delta and serve the whole China.
Its emergence shows the world China’s ambition to enter the cold chain power as the world’s largest importer of refrigerated food.
Kearney, a consulting firm, once estimated that China needs to invest more than 100 billion US dollars to establish an efficient and safe cold chain logistics system.
This estimate is only a few. On the chessboard of China’s whole cold chain strategy, even Guangzhou Nansha is just one of the bright pearls. Many northern cities, such as Dalian, are making secret efforts.
In 2020, due to the cold chain import, Dalian has repeatedly broken out small-scale epidemic, which has been “denounced” by many people on the Internet.
The people of Dalian feel aggrieved and tell a little-known fact: Dalian has the largest cold chain storage group in China, and its total capacity accounts for 1 / 3 of the whole country.
In other words, Dalian is carrying the risk of virus import for Northeast China, North China and even the whole country.
How big is the cold storage in Dalian port? Up to now, the total storage capacity is 400000 tons, almost twice the number two Qingdao port.
Tianjin port, the third largest port in the world, was also blamed. Just a few months ago, Tianjin Customs said that our imports of frozen meat account for one third of the country.
The capacity of cold storage in China has been pushed to a new level.
In 2010, the capacity of our cold storage is not comparable to that of the United States. Today, we are growing sixfold in 10 years, approaching or even surpassing the level of the United States.
People are also taking action.
In 2018, Sinotrans Cold Chain Logistics Co., Ltd., jointly established by China Merchants Group and Sinotrans, was founded, marking the beginning of a new round of integration of China’s cold chain logistics industry.
In the same year, Shunfeng and Xia Hui, the US cold chain giant and McDonald’s Royal logistics company, jointly established new Xia Hui, aiming to build a national cold chain logistics company.
As a representative of domestic fresh e-commerce, Jingdong began to build its own cold chain system in 2014. In just six years, it has become the second largest cold chain logistics enterprise in China, second only to Shunfeng.
This unprecedented investment and integration from the government to the people is bringing China into a new era of cold chain logistics.
Once, when foreigners make complaints about the cold chain of our flat cars, the gap between us and the United States is ten times or even tens of times. Today, the gap is rapidly narrowing.
In the cold chain logistics industry, which is related to 1.4 billion people’s food and drink, in any case, we should firmly hold the initiative in our own hands.
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