China Food

Snack empires must be separated for a long time

 

青山依旧在,几度夕阳红。

 

1980年,安徽芜湖。此时,国内刚刚放开个体营业的政策,但芜湖的一家瓜子摊的摊主年广久已经靠卖瓜子赚了100万。那是一个万元户=土豪的年代。他一天可以卖出两三千斤的瓜子,最大的原因是便宜,他的瓜子要比其他人便宜30%,所以被人称为“傻子瓜子”。
傻子瓜子的成功,很快吸引了芜湖其他人的仿效。芜湖和它所在的安徽省,在接下的年月里成为中国炒货,甚至是中国零食最繁荣的地方。
洽洽食品和三只松鼠均诞生在这片土地上。年广久和他的“傻子瓜子”,标志着中国零食大时代的序幕在接下来的四十年时间里徐徐开启。

for a long time, domestic snacks were chased by foreign snacks.
in the 1990s, foreign snacks that have been rolled out in the global market began to enter the Chinese market on a large scale. Puffed snacks represented by potato chips, candy snacks represented by chocolate and bubble gum, and biscuit snacks represented by combing and beating. Compared with the domestic snacks consumed in the past, these foreign brands have good packaging and taste. More importantly, they are clean and hygienic. At that time, apart from the big white rabbit, there was hardly any local enterprise that could compete with foreign brands. It’s not the taste, but the semi manual rolling of the mature food industry assembly line.
photo source: Phoenix

foreigners have potato chips and we have Guoba. Foreigners have jelly, we have youth league. But the truth is embarrassing. You like to eat Youth League. Your youth league sells well. You need to hire a large number of workers to make it by hand. If you want to build a Youth League production line, I’m sorry, there was no production line designed for the production of Youth League in the world at that time. Even if the production line has. What about marketing? What about marketing strategy?
foreign brands that can come to China are rolled out marketing veterans. In addition, eating snacks is “trying to be fresh”, so foreign snacks are like trisomy people coming to the earth. Bibab bubble gum is like a trisomy “water drop” detector. Seemingly insignificant, such a small thing sank the whole earth fleet.
in 1994, the bibab bubble gum of Italian candy giant Avanti van melle swept China’s candy market as soon as it was launched in China. Its price is not much more expensive than other Chinese candy, and ordinary people are fully able to consume it. It’s delicious and fun. Why don’t children like it. The success of bibab has encouraged foreign investment.

Oreo, who entered China in 1996, became synonymous with chocolate biscuits; Pinke potato chips, which entered China in 1997, became the social currency of many children in that year. If any child can eat top Pinke, he can proudly publicize for a month. The packaging can’t be thrown away. It should be used as a pencil box.
Danone company, on its own, has spent nearly 20 years to make Chinese people accept to drink yogurt. Before, yogurt could only be regarded as a local food (with the characteristics of Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang). The Philippine brand “shanghaojia” returned as an overseas Chinese almost enjoyed national treatment.
photo source: the brands mentioned above should be the childhood memories of many readers. Domestic snacks were hit in disorder and had no ability to fight back. So far, when it comes to snacks, the division of snack types and the representatives of various categories are still mainly foreign brands. It can be said that foreign investment defines Chinese snacks.
review the past. It is precisely because of the entry of foreign brands that China’s snack industry has learned the world’s advanced experience. Just as Apple’s supply chain has upgraded the quality of Chinese mobile phones. However, whether it is the newly formed Dali garden or the old strong team Guansheng garden. Are not enough to shake the world of foreign investment for the time being.
through TV media, Chinese people are very familiar with the products of Yizi (Kraft), Mars and Danone. What are the Tianjin No. 2 food factory and Taiyuan No. 3 food factory? Oreo’s “twist, lick, bubble” is more brainwashing than the later melatonin advertising. Domestic brands lack technology and capital, and have no experience in the promotion of FMCG.

Snacks are a category in a trillion level market. But big and scattered. There are several versions of the green car snack package alone: melon seeds, peanuts, eight treasures porridge, chicken feet, fish fillets, ham sausage. All these are snacks.
among the hundreds of miscellaneous snack categories, some are naturally big stars. They are more favored. If they are taken out alone, they can support a 10 billion listed company. For example, Wei long who makes spicy chips, Cha Cha who makes melon seeds, Shuanghui who makes potato chips, Shuanghui who makes ham sausage, and Ferrero who makes chocolate. As long as these items are covered on the shelves, people will continue to buy and repurchase them.
like us humans, some are dazzling, others are dim. Not all snacks are big stars. More snacks are just small transparent. For example, most nuts, such as preserved meat, such as squid, such as canned yellow peach, such as seaweed.
although these snacks are also very delicious, it is difficult to leave consumers with a very deep memory from the taste buds. I thought it was good when I ate. I turned around and forgot.
many snack categories also have regional characteristics, such as Ma Zhen, which is a star in Guangdong and a little transparent in Shandong. As long as it is not a general public category, it belongs to the category of “small snacks”. Their characteristic is that the audience is not so wide and the consumption frequency is relatively low. It is not realistic to pry the natural repurchase. Continuous marketing is needed to awaken consumers’ memory. The existence of these small transparent categories has little incentive for manufacturers of these categories to become big brands.
making a brand does not mean printing a logo. Making a brand needs to burn money and continue to burn money. Not only advertising, but also selling goods need to burn money. In the era of no e-commerce, comprehensive supermarkets are large traffic platforms. If your brand wants to enter the mall, it needs entry fee, bar code fee, new store opening fee, contract fee, etc. Sometimes even when supermarkets engage in activities and want you to discount, you have to discount. Or I’ll discount your leg.
the Ka supermarket in those days was more dominant than today’s Weiya Li Jiaqi. For large categories, the money is spent, and you can buy more traffic. But for small transparent snacks, the money is often wasted. It’s hard to please.
in 2011, a small food company filed a lawsuit with a large supermarket, and paid 1.28 million yuan to the supermarket. Finally, only 1.13 million yuan of goods were sold. Look, the pit fee was not invented today. Wal Mart and Carrefour are also traffic owners in the rent collection business.
for a single small transparent category, investing a lot of brand budget does not necessarily wake up consumers’ repurchase. The attitude of many consumers towards sketches is: “it’s delicious. Don’t do it next time.” however, these sketches do have many loyal fans at the same time. For example, I like beef jerky, mango jerky and broad bean very much. It’s just that I can’t remember to eat. Only after camping, team building and passing by convenience stores will they buy some easily.
although the consumption frequency of each category is low, dozens of categories and hundreds of categories together are a big business. Therefore, in the business of small snacks, manufacturers are not suitable for small snack brands, and channel / distributor is more suitable. This is also why Watsons, Muji and mingchuangyou, which are not snack shops, are willing to make their own small snacks. Small snack collection stores were also born because of this demand. Do not produce snacks, only do snacks porters.  

The faster the economic development, the more demand there is for the diversification of snack categories. No one will always like potato chips, and no one will always like sandwich biscuits. Consumers will always be tired and there will always be a demand for early taste. The first snack shop brand was born in Shanghai. Name or homophonic stem: [Lai Yifen].
photo source: in the early days of Tencent
, Lai Yifen was in an awkward situation. It faces two powerful rivals in the field of circulation, one is the rapidly rising comprehensive business supermarket, and the other is the market stall that still occupies the mainstream of everyone’s daily consumption but shows signs of recession. They were the super traffic masters of that era.
in the early supermarket, the supply chain was very immature, almost all of them were packaging products. Many supermarkets do not even provide vegetables, fruits and fresh meat. Even if they are supplied, the price is much more expensive than that of ordinary market vendors. In contrast, most products in the market are still purchased according to measurement, and the price is cheap. At that time, almost all snack products in Shanghai supermarkets were expensive brands.
for example, the excellent shrimp strips that accompany Shanghai people grow up, Wangwang langweixian, greegao’s garden cakes, etc. their unit price is 3-5 yuan, and they don’t have much weight. They can only be used as snacks for teenagers to consume occasionally. These new snacks, mainly puffed food, do not meet the tastes of the middle-aged and elderly. They prefer special snacks such as qingtuan, sugar chestnut and mung bean cakes, which are difficult to enter the supermarket channel. Even in the most awesome Shanghai of the time, ordinary residents consumed mainly snacks and peddlers.
this phenomenon does not exist only in Shanghai. At that time, the gap between cities was far from large. Whether you were Shanghai, Guangzhou, Taiyuan or Baotou, the wage income of urban residents across the country was similar, and the general consumption mode and per capita consumption capacity were not poor. Market stalls are affordable, can purchase in batches, and can give play to the passive skills of housewives who are good at bargaining.
for a long time in my memory, consumers thought it was a crime not to bargain. One yuan can buy a large bag of shrimp slices, popcorn and Spiced melon seeds, and a bag of 60g cardina peas. The crisp money can buy several kilograms of cream biscuits produced by small workshops in Shanghai. These bulk cargoes on open-air stalls, without even packaging, need to be packed in pink plastic bags. They taste good and are suitable for young and old. Yu Ruifen and Shi Yonglei, the founders of Laifen, sold their own ice cream in the form of open-air stalls in their early years. There are many problems in the
market stall model, such as frequent stall mobility, inconvenient daily shopping, doubts about food hygiene and safety, and no after-sales guarantee.
there is a blank area between supermarkets and stalls. A more professional snack supermarket with brand. The special snack supermarket and the snack packaging printed with logo have solved the problem of vendor mobility and basic after-sales guarantee: at least if you have a problem, you can find someone. Bulk retail can make product sales more flexible and meet different measurement needs of consumers. In addition, follow-up stores also learn from supermarkets, and customers can purchase independently with shopping baskets. Laiyifen is not so much a snack brand as a snack supermarket brand.

At the beginning of this century, market vendors basically stepped out of the historical stage. Now, even in the rural areas of Shanghai, it is difficult to see the market.
after removing a major enemy, Laifen faces competition mainly from supermarkets and imitators. Local imitators also appeared after Laifen became famous, such as Yijiaren, youbaijia, etc. Lai Yifen has the first mover advantage. It has been laid out in well-known business districts for a long time. In addition, it adheres to the direct marketing strategy, which makes it difficult for other imitators to shake its position as the first brother in Shanghai. That era was not only a bonus period for laiyifen, but also a bonus period for comprehensive supermarkets.
however, the balance is not on the side of comprehensive supermarkets. Whether you go to Carrefour or Bailian, the snack categories are highly similar. However, in Laifen, just like the fast fashion clothes that emerged later, the zero food category is updated rapidly in the cycle. For example, when Badanmu hasn’t appeared in the supermarket, customers can buy three small bags of fresh food at Laifen for 10 yuan. Generally, supermarkets have three or four kinds of dried meat in large packages, but in Laifen, you can buy at least more than ten flavors of dried meat. Laiyifen is the UNIQLO in snacks.
photo source: photo network
although comprehensive supermarkets can also buy bulk snacks, and the categories are beginning to increase, laiyifen runs faster. Relying only on Shanghai and its surrounding areas, laiifen could enter about 30 of China’s top 100 supermarkets ten years ago. Considering the regional market, laiifen can challenge any supermarket giant.
flow means premium right in the supply chain. Large supermarkets compromised. Nowadays, in any large chain store, there will be Laifen or similar snack shops, and the two sides are actually draining each other.   There is no eternal enemy, only eternal interests. Whoever has traffic is his father.
snack shop is essentially a retail business, a circulation business and a channel business. So it’s different from the regular consumer goods business. Because too many SKUs are involved, it is difficult for consumers to have a clear brand awareness of the “small snack” brand. For example, when you mention Dali garden, you will think of kebic potato chips. Referring to Master Kang, you may think of 3 + 2 biscuits. When it comes to Danone, you think of Oreo. But when it comes to Laifen, it’s hard to think of its fist products. Consumers will only evaluate that it has many stores and high cost performance.
although the first mover has the first mover advantage, the followers also have the follow-up bonus. The success of the predecessors proves that the snack shop model has been run through. There is no particularly high barrier to this business. As long as you can do retail, master the supply chain, and explore the market in areas it does not cover.
Laifen is the founder of a snack shop, but it has been obsessed with the direct sales model for a long time, resulting in its slow expansion, covering only Shanghai and its surrounding areas. This gives imitators and followers plenty of time. A603the enrollment expansion of colleges and universities at the beginning of the 1st century has added a new business district in China: university town. This is a new opportunity. In 2003, the number of college students in China expanded rapidly to 15 million. For the snack industry, this is a huge incremental market. Canteen food is difficult to swallow? Want to vomit when you smell instant noodles? There are thousands of nuts, dried meat, snacks, brine products and snacks. You are welcome.
in 2003, Baicao opened its first store in Hangzhou Xiasha university town; In 2003, Laifen opened near almost every university in Shanghai; In 2006, liangpin shop was born in Wuhan, one of the cities with the largest number of college students in China.
without college students, there would be no snack shop. Without the University Town, there would be no snack big three.
with the exponential growth in the number of college students, several snack brands have also preliminarily completed the expansion in their respective regions. Baicaowei surrounded the land in Northern Zhejiang, liangpin shop fought fiercely in Central China, and Laifen began to march into southern Jiangsu after dominating Shanghai. At this time node, there are no national players, and everyone is just a local snake. Even local snakes that imitate each other.
until 2012, liangpin shop and Laifen did not have much direct confrontation, and both sides ran horses in their respective areas. The main battlefield of laiyifen is Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Shanghai, and liangpin shop is to consolidate Hubei, Jiangxi and Hunan.
China has a vast territory. Even if the snack shops make money, it is impossible to quickly spread all over the country in a direct way. If the store is opened slowly, more regional leaders may appear soon. Need acceleration.

In the world, there are only two rough divisions to expand stores. One is direct marketing and the other is franchise. Like tea, Haidilao and Zhou Heiya belong to the firm direct camp, while KFC and miyue ice city belong to the franchise camp. Direct marketing is good, and franchising is good.
before 2012, the routes of laiyifen and liangpin stores were direct stores. Lai Yifen’s obsession with the direct camp comes from the summary of the early war. In 2006, as like as two peas, almost a new competitor came to the US, they took the “three dig” tactics to the company: digging talents, digging suppliers and digging customers.
photo source: interface news

Lai Yifen’s strategy is to expand stores at the rate of ten per month. The opponents were anxious, completely liberalized the franchise system and blindly expanded, resulting in uneven reputation of the store. Laiyifen adheres to the direct marketing mode, which is convenient for store operation, has strong supply chain bargaining power, unified fund mobilization and perfect talent management, so that laiyifen is far ahead of its friends in terms of inventory turnover rate, accounts receivable turnover rate and time from storage to shelf.
was indeed more suitable for the direct mode. In the pre mobile Internet era, the cost of shop inspection is very high, and there is no way to achieve continuous and effective control over franchise stores. Franchisees even have the power to mix snacks without brands into them. Laifen under the direct marketing mode has abundant funds, the revenue continues to rise, and the brand reputation is excellent. In contrast, imitators often expose commercial disputes and all kinds of scandals between franchisees and brands, and stores are opened, closed and opened again and again.
however, there is no permanent standard answer for business. In 2012, liangpin shop, which received financing from today’s capital, opened to join. This time node is just when the curtain of the mobile Internet is slowly opening. With mobile payment, consumer data can be seen by brands, more consumer data can also be precipitated, and more industrial Internet products can be applied to the management of terminal stores.
then, the number of liangpin stores increased geometrically. On the eve of Laifen IPO, liangpin store, driven by Huang Xiaoming’s brainwashing advertisement, has become an industry giant that can fight with the eldest brother. From 2012 to 2016, the number of franchise stores in liangpin store increased from zero to 763, and then increased by more than 700 in the following three years. By the beginning of 2020, the number of franchise stores exceeded 1400, while the number of Direct stores decreased from 1005 to 775. The leverage effect of
joining is very huge. In just four years, liangpin store has expanded the number of stores across the country to more than 2000. Compared with the franchise model of other industries, the franchise model of snacks is lighter and simpler. A franchise store, a small shop of ten to twenty square meters, can be copied with a unified visual system. And the goods are standardized. There is no need to consider the turnover rate, the huge investment return ratio, and franchisees do not have to worry about food safety, logistics, warehousing and other problems.
Laifen is worried about the chaos of the franchise market in those ten years and chooses a relatively worry free direct store. Liangpin store makes use of the particularity of the snack industry to open up and close up on the franchise issue.
when liangpin store and laiyifen were struggling about whether to engage in franchise or direct marketing, another opponent, three squirrels, appeared from a new angle and relied on a new channel: e-commerce. The new entrant told them, “sorry, I’m not aiming at you. As long as I don’t engage in e-commerce, all of you here are rubbish.”


The success of the three squirrels, like their predecessors, is because they can take advantage of the situation. Luck is always the most important element of business success.
the first luck of the three squirrels is [human harmony].
for ten consecutive years, with double-digit economic growth and accelerated urbanization, computers have become a general productivity tool, making China truly enter the era of white-collar workers as the core productivity. If the main snack consumption 30 years ago was middle-aged families, young people have become the absolute consumption core of the snack industry in the decade from 2003 to 2013.
at this time, they are still the main group of Internet users. Young people have curiosity and judgment about new things, and may be able to know well according to pictures and evaluations. For the nut snacks that once could not afford to climb up, once they were able to consume, they would not hesitate to try. This is an accurate customer base.
the second level of luck comes from [geographical advantage].
as an e-commerce brand, the three squirrels chose Anhui as their starting point instead of Hangzhou. “Anhui is the best place to see the whole country’s fried goods”. No one knows the slogan in the nut snack industry.
in 2005, the annual sales of Enterprises above Designated Size in the national nut frying industry was about 25 billion yuan, accounting for two fifths of Anhui Province. Today, the province has more than 1500 large nut upstream and downstream enterprises. Making snacks here is as easy as making consumer electronics in Shenzhen. In addition, the category of “small snacks” is a supply chain business, which needs geographical advantages. Without this foundation, there would be no three squirrels.
the third weight is [Tianshi].
three squirrels were founded in 2012, when the mobile Internet was in the stage of rapid growth. In this year, the sales of double 11 tmall Taobao exceeded 10 billion for the first time, four times that of the previous year. This is a large ocean of huge flow. As long as there are good enough items, a rich flow pool can give birth to a new brand.
the three squirrels were really awesome, but Ali was even more awesome at that time. Three squirrels stood on Ali’s shoulders.
after a few months of picking and choosing, three squirrels chose Bigan fruit as their own explosive. Before that, most Chinese had never eaten or even heard of Bigan fruit. At that time, the domestic market mainly relied on the introduction of Bigen fruit, which was often 40 or 50 yuan a catty. In China, only a small number of areas such as Anhui Ningguo have introduced planting.
the Bigen fruit of three squirrels is less than 30 yuan per kilogram, and is divided into exquisite small packages. Laiyifen has opened the precedent of small nut packaging, and the pain point it solves is the measurement needs of users. Three squirrels in small packages are also used to meet the needs of users.
in 2012, the main force of online nut snacks was urban women. School or work, small bags and pockets can’t hold a kilo of dried fruit. Besides, the three squirrels on the package are still so cute, which is different from other competing painting styles. If there were little red books at that time, they must all be the logos of three squirrels. Photo source of
: after cloud hunting
moved into tmall, it took two months to sell thousands of orders a day. On the day of double 11, it broke the record and got 100000 orders. In just a few months, the revenue of three squirrels reached more than 7 million. The sudden huge order volume caused the collapse of suppliers in Ningguo, Anhui Province. Due to the huge demand, the U.S. export of Huabi root fruit soared from more than 1300 tons in 2005 to more than 45000 tons in 2012. At that time, there were no offline entities and all relied on three squirrels online, becoming the new king of snack brands.

In 2012, the domestic e-commerce network covered 300 million consumers. At this time, e-commerce has not started rolling. Or it has been rolled up, but not completely rolled up. The cost of getting customers is low, and more groups can be reached.
regardless of offline stores, three squirrels can have a faster launch cycle, a higher fault tolerance rate for new products and less new product stock. These advantages increase the product repurchase rate and conversion rate, and reduce the inventory and logistics pressure to a certain extent. Compared with offline, all online consumption data can be precipitated, and the precipitated data is also helpful for new product research and development. At this time, engaging in e-commerce can almost be said to have only advantages and no disadvantages. It took three squirrels three years to become a snack giant with sales of one billion.
as a senior, laiyifen is not blind to the Internet trend. On the contrary, it saw, but made the wrong force and direction. In 2011, Yifen noticed the online potential and launched its own app with the rise of mobile Internet, which appeared almost at the same time as several major e-commerce apps.
at that time, three squirrels had just been established and liangpin store had just received investment to expand its stores. With offline traffic, Laifen app has a million installed capacity in a short time. However, the installed capacity of 1 million represents that the population it covers is only one million. At this time, the traffic in the public domain is not expensive. Laiyifen didn’t seize the traffic dividend at this time, but began to engage in private domain. Equivalent to the whole sea is open to you and allows you to fish, but you miss your own fish pond.
while Lai Yifen was excited to announce that the installed capacity exceeded one million, the daily order volume of three squirrels on tmall platform alone was tens of thousands. Laifen is also addicted to the mobile app terminal, bringing 4.5% of its revenue. The online revenue of the three squirrels is more than ten times that of its mobile terminal.
liangpin shop, which adopted the follow-up strategy, also began to work at the upper end of the line, and then successively entered Taobao system and JD platform. When laiyifen began to pay attention to online, three squirrels and liangpin shop had already occupied the top two positions in the industry. More than 70% of the three squirrels, 50% of the revenue of liangpin store comes from online, and only 10% of Laifen comes from online. The war on the middle battlefield of
is over.

A good name will determine the success or failure of a brand. Do you remember the local competitors in Shanghai I mentioned earlier? Yes, I bet you’ve forgotten their names. The names of the big three snacks are easy to remember. One takes the homophonic line and the other takes the people-friendly line. Three squirrels took the suspense route.
consumers who first see this brand can easily remember the name: three squirrels? Why three? The name [three squirrels] itself is the best communication material. Compared with other snack brands, three squirrels sound more like a brand for young people.
the three squirrels became more and more powerful. Five years later, the revenue was 5 billion and squeezed into the first echelon of the market. Internet e-commerce has made three squirrels, and the traditional eldest brothers are stuck in the throat. Since the three squirrels can fight so well, does it mean that the pure e-commerce model is invincible?
is not. A long time together, a long time apart. Thirty years east of the river, thirty years west of the river. In those years, it was a traffic dividend, and now it is a traffic red sea. Online penetration has reached its peak, and the traffic is becoming more and more expensive. Three squirrels need to spend a lot of money every year. Because they rely heavily on online platforms and traffic, the gross profit margin of the three squirrels is very low, which is far inferior to the main offline Laifen and baicaowei.
no model is perfect. It can only be said that in a period, which field has dividends.
by 2021, the strategies of several companies have begun to converge: they are all implementing and planning to open new offline stores, and neither direct stores nor franchise stores can be less; Online buying, star endorsement, viral marketing, from elevator to app open screen advertising.
therefore, the separation must be combined for a long time. They all found the best flow pool in their respective times. To be exact, they are not looking, but gambling. I have to bet. Laiyifen gambles directly, liangpin shop gambles to join, and three squirrels gamble on e-commerce. At that time, it was a long time.

Whether laiyifen, liangpin shop, three squirrels or baicaowei, they were the net red of the year. Ten years ago, they were very fresh. Ten years later, they have become a relative tradition. It’s not that people don’t like snacks, but they don’t like old snacks.
if nuts represented health in the past decade, they represent “high calorie and high fat” now and in the future. As for meat shops and preserves, this kind of snack is easy to get tired of, and is rich in sodium nitrite, high sugar and high salt. At most, it is a seasoning snack that will be selected one day of the year. In the past, I ate a bag of Bagan fruit, but now I only eat one daily nut at most every day. You have to carefully calculate how many calories you eat and how much protein you supplement. The basic number of people consuming nuts is still increasing, but the per capita consumption of nuts is decreasing.
in those years when the snack industry developed rapidly, the takeout industry was still in the exploratory stage. Snacks such as nuts and preserved meat can be easily carried and become an effective supplement to meals and even meals themselves.
photo source: aifaner

in 2017, the takeout industry launched a subsidy war, and takeout quickly sank to every corner of China. Cheap and affordable, various choices and rich tastes of takeout have solved the problem of many people eating “good” rice to a certain extent. Snacks have no advantages over takeout in price, nutrition and convenience. No matter how exquisite the packaging is and how beautiful the works are, it is difficult to re stimulate the national snack fever. At the current snack price, 50 yuan can buy half a catty of beef jerky, but how much delicious can I buy with this 50 yuan? After all, people have only one mouth and one stomach.
snacks suddenly don’t smell good.


In 2015, Qingdao Wolong launched the “daily nut” product. The emergence of small packaged snacks mixed with dried fruits and nuts poses a great threat to the dominance of the three snack giants. This product contains blueberries, cranberries, raisins, Padan wood, almonds, cashews, everything, but only a little. This net red product is quickly welcomed by young people who love counting calories. In the past, packaged nut products were almost monopolized by three squirrels, liangpin store, Laifen and Baicao flavor, but the emergence of this net red product has changed this monopoly situation.
photo source: a solid city in weidian

suddenly has a hole. Even the big three snacks have launched daily nuts, but they can’t stop more manufacturers from salivating for nut snacks. Even other channels that have never made their own snack brands have begun to launch their own brand of “daily nuts”, including box horse and convenience bee. There are hundreds of “daily nuts” in the market, and cha cha food even takes this snack as its main product.
in 2020, whether it is liangpin shop, three squirrels or Laifen, the revenue of nuts and dried fruits is declining. These two kinds of snacks are just the components of “daily nuts”. So the most terrible thing is not the decline in per capita snack consumption, but that this business has more competitors.
after all, these three are just snack supermarkets. Who is not a channel. New convenience stores have been opened offline. There are more self operated e-commerce platforms online. They are also the main flow in the field of commodity circulation. HEMA, dingdong shopping, daily Youxian, Sam, Jingdong, meituan shopping, tmall supermarket, these self operated e-commerce platforms can make their own snack brands. As the most accurate channel in the snack industry, the original snack shop brand can effectively grasp the supply chain enterprises. However, the reality is that as the industry becomes more and more popular, the channel providers are more and more unable to meet the needs of the supply chain enterprises.
with the intensification of the war, snack manufacturers have changed their voice from passive to active to a certain extent. If liangpin shop does not ask me for OEM, baicaowei will also come to me. Although various brands claim to have thousands of product categories, most of them are the same, but the packaging is different.
when the supply chain “stands up”, it will start to eat the profit space of the channel side. More seriously, the food safety problem began to frequently harass various brands in recent years. Only three squirrels have been complained by consumers thousands of times. There is no other reason, that is, I can’t grasp the supply chain.
the water is too deep. The water is still curly.


零食是高频的消费品品类。多数小零食是一个非常低频的消费品品类。它本身需要持续营销才能唤起消费者的复购欲望。
比如我现在问你,你多久没有吃果冻了?这也是为什么零食巨头在电商平台几乎每天都大搞活动的原因。持续营销的前提是找到便宜的流量。这也是为什么只有这三家零食品牌冲出了重围、成为巨头的原因。
小零食品类多、杂、消费频率低,生产商把这些品类做成单独品牌的成本太高。所以只有为数不多的幸运儿成了单品类品牌。比如有友牌的凤爪,卫龙牌的辣条,祖名牌的豆干。所以才开始有了一系列的零食专门店品牌把这些小品类聚集起来,几百个品类打包起来,贴一个牌子,一起卖。一份流量导入给几百个小品类。 这叫分久必合。
货架电商刚开始流量爆发的时候以后,一小撮小品类又因为瞬时而来的广域流量成为大品类。比如,三只松鼠的碧根果。这叫,分久欲合。
但还没有完全合。这一阶段的【合】主要是因为极低成本的流量红利,相当于让来伊份花开一百个店的钱达到了开10万家店的效果。借助着流量红利,再小的品类,复购再低的品类,都可能会成为大品类。
新消费崛起,更能聚拢流量的直播电商出现,一些小透明品类都可能成为超级品类。再加上新消费玩家不计成本地在各种直播间里买流量,试图把各种小品牌烧出一个大品类。流量不但广域了,愿意烧钱的冤大头也变多了。小品类不断成长为大品类。
比如春江牌鸭掌、藤桥牌鸭舌和卡尔顿的长崎蛋糕,就是靠着非常边缘的零食品类成为今年某电商平台双11休闲零食预售销售量的前十名。随着直播电商成为购物的主流形式,更多的小品类都会成为大品类,都可能诞生各自的王者。这叫合久必分。
最初的零食市场,少年听雨歌楼上。后来的零食战场,中年听雨客舟中。现在的零食战场,星球大战,人脑袋卷成狗脑袋。青山依旧在,几度夕阳红。

Reference source:

[1] Lai Yifen’s official website;

[2] Three squirrels official website

[3] Liangpin shop official website

[4] Lianshang.com editorial department, can retailers really give up channel fees? Associated business network information (WeChat official account), 2021.9.13

[5] Li Feng, Rui capital, Li Feng, Wanzi dialogue, Zhang Liaoyuan: Thoughts on the listing of three squirrels, titanium media, July 3, 2019

[6] Huatai Securities – realize brand personalization and pay attention to the detailed experience of online shopping

[7] Shu Zhijuan, the gross profit margin of liangpin store is lower than that of peers, and the risk of franchise stores exceeding Direct stores remains [J], finance and economics, February 25, 2020

[8] Rakuten, today’s capital Xu Xin invested in liangpin store 10 years ago and was moved by Yang Hongchun’s initial heart, sina finance and economics, February 24, 2020

[9] Li Kang, liangpin shop lost the labor dispute lawsuit, and the loopholes in quality control and operation are escalating? [J] Journal of corporate finance, October 2020

[10] Anonymous, liangpin shop IPO, “venture capital Queen” Xu Xin said at the scene? AP news agency, February 25, 2020

[11] Laiyi’s 2020 Annual Report

[12] Liangpin store 2020 Annual Report

[13] Three squirrels 2020 Annual Report

[14] Three squirrels PK liangpin shop, who is China’s “king of snacks”? [J] , forward looking economist, November 12, 2021

[15] Zhongtai Securities – decrypting the mystery of three squirrels & high roe in liangpin store

[16] Wu Kai, the birth of snack Empire, economic daily, October 27, 2016

[17] Jiang Haifeng, Omni channel of liangpin store: what bureau is it [J], China chain, December 2015

[18] [1] Liang Xiao, Lai Yifen: defending the snack kingdom [J], southern entrepreneur, September 2017

[19] Wang Genwang, Wang Yaqi, founder of three squirrels, Zhang Liaoyuan: brainwashing is the most important work, entrepreneur, May 31, 2016

[20] Li Feng, CEO of Fengrui capital: three squirrels have experienced difficult times. Zhang Liaoyuan couldn’t sleep at night. Time is unknown

[21] Lin’an News – interview with 2012 China nut fried food distribution Summit Forum

[22] Guojin Securities – leading leisure food enterprise in attack

[23] Orient Securities – circulation of a nut: Perspective on similarities and differences among e-commerce, supermarkets and brand chain channels

[24] Huachuang securities Taobao brand 2.0: the reverse growth path of DTC channel brand

[25] why, the capital escapes? Why don’t the three squirrels smell good? WeChat official account, financial gossip girl, 2021.10

[26] Yao Junqing, how to spend the 300 million financing of three squirrels: Supply Chain + logistics + category expansion, China business daily, September 16, 2019

[27] Ni Mingya, signed a purchase order of nearly 200 million yuan at the Shanghai Laifen fair, China Securities Network, November 8, 2021

[28] Huang Qun, three squirrels, double 11 war report: leisure snacks rank first in the whole line, and nuts are far ahead, Securities Daily, November 12, 2021

[29] anonymous, did Zhang Liaoyuan smash the store for hype or to strictly abide by the red line of quality? China chain, February 13, 2017

[30] anonymous, Yu Ruifen, founder of Laifen, how to turn snacks into an 8 billion capital empire? Entrepreneur, November 30, 2018

[31] Yu Ruifen: “snack kingdom” Lai Yifen is “broken and established” to become a national brand [J], international online, December 10, 2019

作者:绿牙齿、半佛仙人;来源:半佛仙人(ID:banfoSB),转载已获得授权。
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