is just around the corner. Let’s talk about Chinese pastries. However, China’s traditional pastry production has a long history, coupled with a vast territory and different customs, tastes and ingredients, forming various factions in Beijing, Guangzhou, Fujian, Chaozhou, Sichuan, Ningshao and so on. Due to the limited space and the fact that Beijing style pastries were well deserved representatives of “legal system” in the past, we will focus on Beijing style pastries today.
in the old days, people commonly referred to pastries as “pastry”. The word “Bobo” began in the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty moved its capital to Yanjing (Beijing), bringing milk flavored cakes from the western regions; In the Ming Dynasty, people from Jiangsu and Zhejiang moved to the north one after another, and some cake merchants opened Nanguo shops in Beijing; When the Qing Dynasty established its capital in Beijing, it brought Manchu cakes. The north and South cakes learned from and integrated with each other, which promoted the prosperity of the market. In addition, Manchu people have always paid attention to the production of pasta. In the prosperous era of KangQian and Qianlong, pastry shop has long become an important industry in the capital.
pastry shops in the Qing Dynasty were composed of North and south banks. The south bank is mainly operated by Jiangsu and Zhejiang pastry merchants in Beijing; The north bank, also known as the Beijing case, is composed of pastry merchants in Beijing, Tongzhou and Baoding. It manufactures and sells Beijing style pastries, that is, Manchu Han pastries and Halal pastries often seen at that time. Han pastries like lard, Manchukuo pastries use cream more, and Halal pastries use sesame oil more. At that time, Beijing style pastries reached their peak. As the records quoted at the beginning, Manchukuo pastry was a necessary food for enjoyment, God prayer, sacrifice, banquet, festival, red and white wedding and other occasions.
zhengmingzhai, jiulongzhai, juqingzhai, minghuazhai, ruifangzhai and GUI yingzhai were all famous brand names in that era. For example, many cakes made in zhengmingzhai are court tribute, with a wide variety, exquisite workmanship and strict materials. For example, sesame seeds must be peeled before they can be used. In addition, we have seen several times when sorting out documents, that is, charcoal made of tree root fossils in Xishan, Beijing. Only when baking snacks with this charcoal can they be presented to the palace.
and the prosperity of the market can also be seen from the facade decoration. It is not only the brand’s own plaque, but also the face characters of famous books. The auxiliary signs are also quite direct. They are usually hung outside the facade, and the content is mainly auspicious patterns, pastry models or pastries sold in the store at this stage.
snack packaging is also a school of its own. If you bring gifts to other places, there will be a special wooden box. If you buy eight pieces as gifts, the pastries will be packed in a PU Bao, which will be padded with straw paper and oil paper to prevent crushing and oil leakage. Generally, it is one piece of two catties, which will be wrapped squarely and squarely, and then stamped with a red “ticket” of the pastry shop, printed with the shop name or product leaflet, and finally tied with white hemp rope (halal pastry shop uses pink hemp rope), as shown on the left side of the figure below.
although with the change of history, this packaging mode gradually withdrew from the market and was gradually replaced by rectangular cartons (as shown on the right side of the figure below), the way of pasting tickets in the end remained. Many traditional pastry brands, such as Daoxiang village, still have Daoxiang Village tickets on the gift boxes sold so far.
although Beijing experienced turbulent times in modern times, according to the Beiping business questionnaire in June 1936, there were 206 pastry households, 175 pastry trade union members and 1263 employees in Beiping at that time, which still shows the scale at that time (not compared with the urban area of modern Beijing). During the war of resistance against Japan, because of the rationing system, many pastries could not get the supply of flour, sugar, oil and other raw materials, so they had to close down. After liberation, there were few time-honored pastry shops left. Around 1960, the method of collecting pastry tickets for buying pastries began to be implemented. At that time, pastry tickets were typical scarce goods. Many tickets were obtained only after the festival. Except for the amount of walking during the festival, everyone may only get one bite. Old Beijing, which has experienced that era, still has a special preference for Beijing style cakes.
SaQima belongs to fried pastry, which is interpreted as “dog milk sugar dip” in qingwenjian. Sugar dip is easy to understand. It is to use eggs, oil and noodles, carefully cut and fry them, and then stir them with maltose and honey, so it is called “sugar dip”. As for dog milk, it was traced back by Professor Qigong, an expert on the story of the Qing Dynasty. It was found that it was a wild berry in the northeast. It was named after the shape of dog milk. Initially, it was used as the fruit of Sakima. After entering Beijing, it was gradually replaced by raisins and melon kernel, which was little known.
in the past, there were two kinds of SaQima, cream and osmanthus, which have gradually developed into one. In the 1980 edition of “Beijing pastry” and the 2008 edition of “practical manual of baking industry” published by the light industry press, there are osmanthus flowers in the raw material formula of SaQima. Put the prepared Sakima on the rice paper, use sesame as the bottom, mix the fried noodles with a layer of uniform syrup, and then sprinkle gold cake strips, raisins, green and red silk on the surface. The entrance is soft, soft, sweet and palatable.
cylinder furnace of TM flagship store in daoxiangcun, Beijing
is very rich in materials. As a tank furnace for mixing sugar cakes,
is more high-quality and cheap, with less oil and sugar content. The manufacturing method of
cylinder furnace is relatively simple, and there is no need to pack stuffing. When making, stir brown sugar (or white sugar) and osmanthus into the hair noodles, knead them evenly, and then divide and bake. In the past, it was divided into round edge cylinder furnace and edge cutting cylinder furnace. The difference is that the round edge cylinder furnace is baked separately piece by piece. The edge cutting cylinder furnace is baked with dough together, so as to adhere to each other, and there are burrs after breaking.
The entrance of the cylinder furnace is soft, suitable for all ages, with sweet scented osmanthus. In the past, it was also an indispensable gift when visiting pregnant women. But now even in Beijing, it is hard to find its trace.
the most classic is the eight pieces of pastry, which are divided into the top four and the bottom four. The above four samples are printed with the words “Fu Lu Shou Xi”, in which Fu Zi cake and Xi Zi cake are filled with sugar and honey; Birthday cake with rose petals; Lu Zi cake is made of Hawthorn stuffing. The following four kinds are: silver ingot cake symbolizing wealth, chicken oil cake with the meaning of “more than auspicious celebration”, jujube cake with the meaning of giving birth to a noble son early, and crispy cake with the number one scholar and wishes.
. Here, let’s talk about chicken oil cake separately. It’s named because it uses chicken oil to make stuffing. The production process is not difficult, that is, it needs to pay attention to chop the green onions when filling, roast the pepper and roll it into powder, and stick sesame on the surface after forming. This kind of salt and pepper flavor sounds very attractive, but it is difficult to find the figure of chicken oil cake after searching through the Internet, except in nostalgic articles.
the difference between eight pieces of milk skin, eight pieces of wine skin and eight pieces of pastry is mainly in the point carpel. An appropriate amount of yellow rice wine was added to the wine skin, which later evolved into one with brandy, and the milk skin was added with fresh milk.
with the development, the fillings and shapes of the eight pieces of Beijing in people’s impression in different periods have also changed slowly. What remains unchanged is the good wishes sent to them. In the second half of the 20th century, the “Beijing eight pieces” disappeared for a long time. Until 2006, the Beijing Municipal Bureau of industry promotion set up a project to redevelop the “Beijing eight pieces” and “palace imperial point”. After textual research, research, development and adjustment, Beijing Daoxiang Village reintroduced the “Beijing eight pieces” that had disappeared for decades in 2007.
of daoxiangcun TM in Beijing. The new version of Beijing eight launched by daoxiangcun in Beijing has aroused a warm response once it was restored. In the report of Beijing Evening News in 2016, it was said that the sales of pastries soared during the twelfth lunar month. The production of Beijing eight was in a saturated state of two shifts in 24 hours, with a daily shipment of 2000 boxes, a total of 12000 boxes, which was still in short supply. In 2019, Beijing Business Daily also mentioned that Beijing Daoxiang village also made eight pieces of sugar alcohol Beijing for sugar friends. This year, the TM flagship store of Beidao has also launched a new version of Beijing eight pieces. For the time being, we haven’t seen the sugar alcohol version. I don’t know what to do offline. Han Pu, the author of
, once said in the article: “perhaps it is because the material is rich to a certain extent, and people’s psychology is gradually becoming rational. In recent years, people are increasingly pursuing the return of spiritual culture while pursuing material enjoyment. This is probably the driving force for daoxiangcun to re launch the eight pieces of cakes in Beijing.”
but objectively speaking, the food world has ups and downs. When new products appear, old products are covered with dust. How to make the classics glow again may be the test for people who want to deeply cultivate the Chinese baking market. Now, on the raw material side, we have more obvious advantages than in the past, but our thinking is not necessarily more flexible. Sometimes when you look through the past recipes, you will find that some of the wisdom of the ancients is still shining in the matching of ingredients.
author: Mogu; Source: CIB Baking Technology Research Institute (ID: cibtcn), reprint has been authorized. Reprint authorization and media business cooperation: Amy (wechat: 13701559246); Join the community: Cherry (micro signal: 15240428449). foodaily daily food joined hands with the world’s top business and industrial partners to build fbic222 global food and beverage Innovation Conference & the first foodaily Expo daily food innovation Expo “new food era – brand ecology” in Shanghai from May 31 to June 2, 2022. We invite you to witness it together. (click the picture to see the detailed introduction).
Read the original text