means that China, as the birthplace of tea, has tens of thousands of tea enterprises, but these tea enterprises can’t compare with Lipton in the UK.
therefore, it is often used to compare Lipton, a popular tea bag in the world, with Chinese tea enterprises that emphasize tea technology and culture.
then calculate how well Lipton has standardized agricultural products. At present, Chinese tea is a regional economy without large-scale mechanization, so it is concluded that standardized products break through everything.
what do you say?
the facts are correct, but there is something wrong with the conclusion.
Lipton is really good and Lipton is really strong.
but Lipton relies not only on complete standardization and industrialization, but also on product positioning, marketing and channels.
in some business scenarios, Lipton is the right choice with high cost performance.
Lipton has never beaten domestic tea enterprises. The two sides are not going the same way. Bag tea and original leaf tea belong to two kinds of products and face different customers.
in addition, Lipton’s standardization has not conquered the Chinese market.
on the contrary, the more standardized Lipton is, the less influence it has.
and this is related to the habits of Chinese consumers.
in the late 1940s, Thomas Lipton was born in an Irish family who fled to Scotland to avoid famine.
his parents opened a small grocery store in Glasgow, Scotland, selling Irish cheese, ham, butter and eggs to support the family.
a refugee family who opened a grocery store. Under the background and family conditions of that era, little Lipton couldn’t care about studying and making progress.
dropped out of school early and began to work around to help the family.
making money is the greatest improvement.
but unlike his father, Lipton, a young man, has a special preference for business and adventure.
in 1867, 16-year-old Thomas Lipton boarded an ocean going ship as a waiter.
destination new world – North America. When
landed from New York, he had only $8 left.
he worked in a farm and sold goods on the street.
finally worked as an assistant in a department store.
he developed a great interest in American marketing methods.
he wrote in his autobiography:
“the food here is not better than Glasgow;
but American store clerks and bosses pay great attention to showing all the advantages of products in front of customers;
they have special interest in customers, attract customers, serve them and satisfy them, so that customers can return continuously.”
he didn’t go back to his parents’ small grocery store to help.
opened its first Lipton food store on starber cross street.
the same cheese, bacon, butter and eggs.
what’s different is that this store only belongs to him.
in his own business, Thomas brought his marketing talent into full play.
Lipton has formulated two policies for its grocery store: high quality and low price, and advertising in place.
“purchase products from producers”;
“the capital of buying and selling lies in the product itself and advertising”.
simply put, it is to cut down middlemen, offer low prices and marketing first.
is basically an Internet e-commerce thinking version 1.0.
in order to understand the needs of customers, Lipton always contacts the most economical housewives in the city to understand their purchase needs and habits.
in terms of advertising, he was original. He invited a local cartoonist to draw some comics for Lipton store. Every week, he pasted new comics on the glass window.
in this way, he attracted many people to read comics before coming to the store on Monday morning.
in order to promote the ham in the store, he specially bought two huge fat pigs from the farm and dressed them in Irish clothes, named
when I checked the information, I read it several times and confirmed that I was right.
this is really a cultural difference.
Lipton orphans swaggered through the city center, attracting countless onlookers. Due to the large number of onlookers, the police kept order. The incident was published in the local newspaper the next day.
Lipton store is famous for this, and the image of pig is associated with ham, which makes consumers feel good about its products.
in order to attract customers to buy cheese, he hid gold coins in the cheese to create the concept of “lucky cheese” and attracted attention.
, a marketing method that seems to have been rotten now, was no different from dimensionality reduction at that time.
under the leadership of Thomas Lipton marketing, Lipton store has become a large enterprise with dozens of branches in less than ten years, and even opened its branches in London.
Thomas Lipton himself became a millionaire.
million pounds of wealth, at that time, it was not too much to say that “the country is as rich as the enemy”.
you have to know, that was more than 100 years ago.
India and Sri Lanka succeeded in growing tea. The express ship specially transporting black tea was officially launched and the Suez Canal was navigable.
the cost of tea production and transportation decreased significantly.
drinking tea has become popular among British consumers.
tea has become a good business.
as Lipton food has a large number of branches in London, it is also expanding rapidly in other parts of the UK and has mastered a large number of sales channels.
some tea merchants suggested to Lipton that they purchase tea and sell tea in Lipton food store.
then went to Sri Lanka by boat, bought several tea plantations and reached supply agreements with other tea plantations.
and build several processing plants in the plantation to ensure that the tea can be processed within two hours after picking.
cut down middlemen and advertise.
in 1890, when 20000 boxes of tea from Lipton company were transported to Glasgow for the first time, he specially loaded tea with 50 carriages and invited bands and trumpeters to play gongs and drums all the way to welcome and send the tea cart, which attracted countless attention.
after the tea arrived, Lipton asked people to wear Chinese clothes for activity advertising, printed a large number of advertising posters, and painted the appearance of tea pickers in the tea garden on the tea packaging.
the slogan is “good tea from tea garden to teapot”.
is eye-catching and popular.
cut down middlemen to gain popularity, and then?
then product differentiation.
before Lipton, the price of a pound of tea in Britain was no less than 3 shillings.
was still luxurious for the public at that time.
as a result, Lipton, which reduced the cost of tea, quickly seized the market at an ultra-low price of one shilling and six cents per pound of tea.
at the same time, in order to enable all consumers to drink the same tea, Lipton combines different tea leaves to become a stable taste tea that you can’t drink differently.
on the other hand, unlike other stores, it is sold by gram.
Lipton makes black tea into a fixed weight of one pound and half pound, and makes independent packaging in advance. The name of “Lipton” is written on the packaging and stacked in a large number of stores.
consumers don’t have to wait, they can pay with tea;
the clerk does not need to weigh and pack, but only needs to check out quickly.
not only saves the time of consumers, but also saves the labor cost of stores.
many people think of tea bags when they talk about Lipton. When they talk about Lipton’s standardization and productization, they think of tea bags.
in fact, the tea bag was invented by New York tea merchant Thomas Sullivan in 1903 and was not widely used in the American catering industry until 1920.
Lipton’s standardization at the beginning was not tea bags.
is a quick tea making, matching tea and pre packaging.
but even this kind of measure, which seems ordinary today, still achieved the effect of dimensionality reduction in the past era.
it seems to us today that Lipton, as the representative of instant tea, became the representative of good tea at that time because of its stable quality, practical convenience and low price, which greatly promoted the popularity of tea drinking among the middle and lower classes in Britain.
from the current perspective, what Lipton does is actually branding.
master the supply chain and sales channels and obtain the core competitiveness of “low price”;
attract traffic by advertising and seize the market at a low price;
provide differentiated products through prepackaged and mixed tea;
at the same time, unify the packaging logo and establish the brand image.
is basically an Internet game.
when others do sales, they have started a brand.
Lipton has never been an industrial thinking, others are Internet thinking.
since it is Internet thinking, the online Red model can’t go around.
in his opinion, “fame” is a vital part of the enterprise strategy.
so he always appears in front of the public with a conflicting image;
he was unmarried all his life and created the image of a playboy, but he was not good at women’s sex in private (it should also be bad at men’s sex);
he has a special liking for sailing events. As a civilian, he was rejected by the Royal Yacht team, but he still calls himself a “great captain”.
every once in a while, his tidbits came out.
is this charm or marketing?
no one can understand.
and his charm, or his marketing, peaked in 1898.
in 1898, on the 60th anniversary of Queen Victoria’s accession to the throne, Lipton sponsored a large amount of tea and sugar to the British royal family.
the royal family reciprocated by conferring the title of Thomas Lipton.
Britain has always been a country with a noble tradition.
although Thomas Lipton has long been rich, in front of the old aristocracy, starting from scratch is inferior to inheriting family property.
only when you become an aristocrat can you turn over and decide.
therefore, Lipton after being sealed completely opened the gap with other tea merchants.
I’m a jazz, and you’re just smelly tea sellers.
by virtue of being knighted, Lipton won the title of “king of black tea in the world”.
the specific reason for the title of “king of black tea in the world” is unknown. It is rumored that Lipton himself claims to be true after a long time. Although
is just a rumor, it is not impossible from the perspective of its marketing style.
after that, Lipton was invincible in the UK.
is also normal.
those who produce tea do not sell tea;
those who sell tea do not produce tea.
Lipton produces and sells tea. It also brings its own traffic, which has also become a brand.
when he turned an agricultural product into an industrial product.
when he made the company a brand, money flowed in.
Lipton food developed all the way. By 1929, Lipton food had nearly 600 Lipton food stores in Britain, and Lipton food was also found everywhere in other countries in Europe.
has set up factories in the United States and opened branches in India to attack the world.
industrialized products cannot bypass the United States.
Lipton stores mostly supply ham and meat from the United States, and Thomas Lipton has traveled between Britain and the United States for many times.
during his stay in the United States, he found that Americans hardly drink tea at all.
due to a series of events between Britain and the United States, coffee is popular in the United States, while the tea market is pitifully small.
among the few Americans who drink tea, the vast majority start with green tea.
however, due to a large number of substandard tea in the American tea market, green tea has a bad reputation in the United States and is gradually replaced by black tea.
in Lipton’s eyes, Americans don’t drink tea, but it shows that the United States is a huge blue ocean.
more than 100 years later, a Chinese coffee making enterprise issued a similar sigh as Lipton.
one sells tea and one sells coffee;
one in the West and one in the East;
one hundred years ago, one hundred years later;
one conquered America and the other beat America.
has the same structure, similar arguments and opposite directions.
two-way rush, belong to yes.
he wrote in his autobiography.
at the beginning, Lipton planned to start with food stores as in the UK, but he did not have a ready-made retail sales network in North America.
finally, he found that in North America at that time, tea did not compete in hotels and catering.
coffee, the dominant beverage in North America, will not become a climate until decades later.
Lipton’s tea products have no rivals in terms of taste stability and packaging.
so Lipton set up a headquarters in Chicago to recruit employees and push them door-to-door.
soon became popular, with sales and profits even exceeding those in Europe.
but there are two important opportunities for Lipton’s popularity in North America.
the first point is that around 1895, the Sri Lankan authorities believed that North Americans were used to drinking green tea, encouraged the production of green tea and gave export subsidies, resulting in the overproduction of green tea in Sri Lanka, the insufficient supply of black tea and the inferior quality of Lipton.
the second point is that Lipton has an accurate grasp of the psychological state of Americans who “love novelty”.
at the 1904 St. Louis World Expo, iced tea was very popular because of the hot weather, and quickly popularized after the Expo. In view of the introduction of instant tea bags made by youlipton company, which are used to make instant tea, 6031.
and continued to iterate after that, launching new products and taking care of Americans.
Thomas died in 1931, but his marketing philosophy has gone deep into the survival philosophy of Lipton company.
between the two world wars, although the North American market was dominated by coffee, the demand for Lipton tea still exceeded that of Britain due to the rapid growth of American population and economy.
especially after World War II, the United States, with its booming economy, gave Lipton the opportunity to grow rapidly.
in the 1950s, when the growth of tea market stopped, Lipton company developed a variety of beverages, Lipton instant soup and other products, which continued to grow in the United States.
by catering to American life, Lipton has rapidly grown into a big Mac in the fast food era.
although Lipton has adopted different development ideas in North America and Europe.
in Europe, it is from food to tea, from retail to wholesale;
in the United States, it is from tea to other food and beverages, from wholesale to retail.
however, its core elite concept is the same: marketing + low price + convenience.
Lipton was acquired by Unilever in 1972. The
acquisition did not make Lipton disappear, but joined forces to urge Lipton to expand in a new round.
by virtue of Lipton’s leading position in the tea and fast food market, Unilever was able to add its identity as a food giant.
relies on Unilever’s sales channels. Lipton’s yellow labels appear frequently in films, television and various fashion magazines. Lipton’s brand image is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people.
as a result, Lipton expanded rapidly and sold in 110 countries and regions around the world.
whether in terms of popularity or sales volume, Lipton is the world’s largest tea brand and far exceeds the second. It is the world’s third largest non-alcoholic beverage after Coca Cola and Pepsi Cola.
in 1992, Lipton, which has become a century old brand, officially entered the Chinese market with tea bags.
the 1990s is a special time for China.
with the rapid development of economy, the consumption power increases correspondingly, while the corresponding commodity market categories are still poor.
at the same time, due to the huge economic gap at home and abroad, the strong commercial consumer market and consumer culture output in the western capital market, domestic consumers were full of worship for foreign goods at that time.
among these adored commodities is Lipton tea bag.
at that time, most of our tea was brewed directly with hot water.
there is a thick layer of tea floating in the enamel cup. The old man lifts the cup in his left hand, blocks the tea with the cup cover in his right hand, and slowly sips the tea along the edge of the cup to prevent accidental drinking of tea.
after drinking, “ha” and take a breath.
this is the stereotype of “tea” – a typical elderly drink.
then came Lipton teabag.
is easy to brew and the price is lovely. The most important thing about
is that it has its own aura of foreign brands.
Lipton at this time is quite different from the popular label of “traditional and elderly” for local pure tea drinking, which represents the elite lifestyle similar to coffee.
what we drink is not tea, but the western culture represented by Lipton’s small label paper hanging outside the mug.
Lipton can quickly open the domestic market, especially the office scene.
elevates the behavior of drinking tea from “middle-aged and elderly behavior” to “the choice of successful people”.
tea bags make tea into FMCG and help Lipton occupy the mass market. After
, Lipton launched green tea, milk tea and jasmine tea, and continued to occupy the market. Five years after entering China, Lipton has accounted for more than 60% of the domestic tea bag market share in a series of surveys of 100 shopping malls in China, and its tea bag market share has been the first in the world for many years.
in 2005, Lipton black tea sales exceeded $2.8 billion.
Lipton proudly claims that “every time your heart beats, 1252 cups of Lipton hot black tea are drunk and 119 cans of Lipton black tea are consumed all over the world; and the net weight of tea sold by Lipton every year is equivalent to the weight of about 14000 adult African elephants.”
Lipton has indeed become a stepping stone for a generation of young people to enter the beverage world.
its “yellow brand black tea bag” is closely connected with the urban, elite and high-end lifestyle in the hearts of domestic consumers.
around 2017, the claim that 70000 tea enterprises were defeated by Lipton was rampant in China.
in fact, Lipton tea bag is a cultural epitome, representing a delicate and fast “white-collar life”. Like coffee and sugar, it is an impression, a label and a group choice under the influence of the times.
however, as time goes by, labels will become obsolete.
on November 18, 2021, Unilever sold Lipton’s global tea business at a price of 4.5 billion euros, about 32.6 billion yuan.
half a century of cooperation has come to an end.
Unilever’s sale of Lipton reflects the embarrassing situation of tea giant Lipton.
judging from the trend of global consumption, consumers’ demand for coffee is growing, while the growth rate of traditional tea sales is slowing down.
especially in developed markets, the demand for black tea is declining.
and the proportion of British black tea in Lipton’s overall business is very high, more than 60%.
since 2019, Unilever’s tea business began to show signs of sales decline.
Lipton with weak growth is naturally put on the shelf.
this sentence itself contains great uncertainty.
how to define tea enterprises and how to define invincibility? What is
better than? Than Gmv scale or than net profit? The source of
is a set of data from 2016.
in 2016, the total export volume of nearly 70000 tea enterprises in China was US $1.48 billion, less than half of Lipton’s total global sales (more than US $3 billion).
but the problem is that compared with Lipton’s total global sales, the total export volume of Chinese tea enterprises is not statistically correct.
take your first-class horse to my second-class horse? You know, the sales of Chinese tea enterprises have always been mainly at home, not abroad.
in 2020, the total global output of tea is 5.972 million tons, of which China’s output is 298.6 tons.
accounts for more than half.
in 2020, China’s tea market reached 262.66 billion yuan.
this huge market is obviously not supported by one Lipton.
in terms of popularity and influence alone, no domestic tea enterprise can compete with Lipton.
but to say that 70000 tea enterprises can’t beat one Lipton, it really depends on how you compare.
this is back to the field of statistical games.
many “management masters” and “brand marketing masters” also like to take this as a case to prove that standardized products explode everything and prove the importance of the brand.
but the reality is.
who told you that China needs a “standard tea”?
in fact, China has never needed standardized products such as Lipton tea bags, and Lipton has never conquered China with this.
because Chinese tea is never the same species as foreign tea.
even Chinese tea is not a single product.
is a collection of countless products.
Lipton’s main market is white-collar tea bags.
targets coffee, milk tea, red bull and other refreshing drinks that provide caffeine, rather than Chinese tea.
tea in Chinese population refers to “pure drinking tea”.
is Longjing, Maofeng and Tieguanyin;
is Pu’er, oolong, Dahongpao, Phoenix and fir.
has hundreds or even thousands of categories.
all teas come together and become a non-standard product.
what do Chinese drink tea?
is the type, year and region of tea, the technology of tea frying, the technology of fermentation and the skill of tea making.
is a completely different arrangement.
everyone is saying that no Chinese tea enterprise can compete with Lipton, and no enterprise can make Lipton’s achievements.
this is taken for granted.
take a tea bag for low-cost mass consumption. Compared with a lot of non-standard tea, it naturally explodes everything.
if you compare the consumption of Tsingtao beer with that of French high-end red wine, you will also find that the whole French wine enterprises are not enough for Tsingtao beer.
is red wine comparable to beer? The canned beer in
supermarket is an industrial product and a standardized product. It pursues stable quality, good quality and low cost.
and high-end red wine, drinking is the origin of grapes, is the year, is the brewing process, is the tasting technology, and even a little metaphysics.
the two are not on the same track.
the same is true of wine and tea.
Chinese tea and foreign tea are objectively two completely different product types.
domestic demand for tea is a non-standard product, a handicraft and a cultural carrier.
just as Westerners drink wine according to the year of origin and brewing technology, we drink tea according to the technology of tea seed fermentation and tea frying, which is a non-standard product.
and foreign tea is a functional beverage and a standard product. There are only two kinds of
standard products, a pure brand and a pure product. The same handmade leather bags as
are sold for 500 in Guangzhou white horse market and 20000 in Lv. This is a brand.
the same tea bag, Lipton can sell at a low price, others can’t earn if they sell it. This is selling products.
high-end non-standard products need a lot of added value. They need the year, place of origin, variety and process of added value to form a consensus and build a brand.
speaking of red wine, we all know Bordeaux, but Bordeaux is a place name, not a brand name.
how many high-end wine brands can the public know?
Lipton tea bag, a product with low price, convenient brewing and stable quality, should be used in companies, offices and hotels.
is a scene that has no requirements for taste and needs convenient and fast brewing.
the “tea” in our mouth and the “tea” made by Lipton have never existed in the same way.
as a “cultural carrier”, the “value ceiling” of Chinese tea is very high.
non-standard products are like this.
tea, like wine, is a special “cultural product” in China’s environment and can be endowed with various values.
can you believe that the price of an aged tea cake is beyond imagination, and the beverage can play out art collections and even financial futures?
tobacco, wine and tea have always been products with added value, and can even act as “currency” to a certain extent.
therefore, those who sell tea need this added value, and those who buy tea also need this added value.
on the surface, this added value is the cultural, taste, craft and artistic value in the mouth of the donor.
but the actual value lies in the role that the givee actually plays, which is social value.
do you know why those tobacco, alcohol and tea can still survive when there are few people?
because they act as a financial transit station.
goods that can hold X have the basis to increase the premium.
and this premium basis has disappeared since Lipton positioned itself as a “standardized product”.
simple drinks have become a financial game, which is difficult to “carry” by simple general commodities.
investigates China’s consumer market, you will find that tea, Baijiu, jade and antiques are all so. Their practical value is very limited, but when a commodity has cultural value and becomes a market, it is hard to be defeated by a “standard product”.
standard artificial gemstones cannot impress the market of jadeite and diamond;
high quality and inexpensive beer can not pry the market of Baijiu.
no matter how powerful Lipton is, it can’t eat the Chinese tea market.
we are not the same thing.
who doesn’t want to earn a premium.
but in the current trend of consumption upgrading, Lipton’s standardized products, low prices and targeted marketing have become obstacles to its high-end transformation over the years.
is famous for its low price, but it can’t be high-end.
due to the lack of innovation, Lipton has no other impressive products except yellow black tea for a long time. The scenes in my mind of Lipton are always related to “office” and “overtime”.
therefore, every “first” of Lipton must carry the word “making tea in a bag”.
however, bagged tea accounts for only 4% of the total consumption of tea products in China.
this first is indisputable.
this first is guilty.
unfortunately, Lipton faces threats even in its own areas of strength. In the
tea bag market, in addition to the old rival CHUANNING, Dayi tea, Chali tea, Xiaokong tea, Lele tea and other brands have launched their own tea bag products. In addition to the innovation, marketing and popular design of localization in taste and technology,
also launched scented osmanthus oolong tea bags, and functional tea bags represented by red bean job’s tears tea and gold and silver flower and grass tea to seek differentiation.
in the FMCG category of instant tea, new brands continue to emerge and old brands continue to make efforts.
tea, iced black tea, green tea, lemon tea, oolong tea, juice tea and other types of disputes continue.
the new tea drink represented by Xi tea and Naixue tea and the new coffee army represented by Ruixing give young people standing outside the tea drink more choices.
high-end tea, can’t go up;
canned tea, too many people;
bags of tea are also rolled.
before the wolf and after the tiger, Lipton, who is “the first to make tea in a bag”, is hesitant on the fork road of the times.
with the superposition of layers of factors, Lipton has become the “abandoned son” of Unilever from the social currency of young people in the past.
Lipton still occupies the first position in China’s tea bag market share, and Lipton is still the leader in China’s tea bag industry.
but in this era, it seems that no one has taken the initiative to buy Lipton except for the collective procurement of the company.
in addition to Nestle and Lipton, there are many new faces in the tea room of each company.
has Lipton helped the whole industry become better?
the answer is, not necessarily.
industrial products rely on stable cost performance to win.
profit comes from the price difference between the selling price and the cost, which is inseparable from the price reduction of the upstream.
and Lipton’s problem is that in cheap blended tea, subtle differences in tea quality are not important.
what’s more, no one cares about the taste of tea bags with an average price of less than one yuan.
Lipton tea bag, in the eyes of the vast majority of people, is a cheap and fast refreshing drink, which is the existence of coffee in roadside convenience stores.
requires high-grade taste and taste for such tea. It’s not that it’s a problem, it’s you.
and the degradation of tea quality requirements leads to no bargaining space in the upstream of tea.
further leads to the exploitation of people of origin.
“the real cost of a cup of tea” analyzes the value composition of a cup of tea on the basis of field interviews: 53% of the benefits of
flow into the terminal market, that is, they are taken away by retailers in stores, and 33% of the profits flow into some big western brands, such as CHUANNING and Lipton, which are divided layer by layer in the value chain, Finally, the profit in the hands of tea workers is only an amazing 0.16%.
afternoon tea at the Ritz Hotel in London costs £ 60 per person, equivalent to about 505 yuan.
the average daily wage of tea picking workers in Assam, India is only about 13.47 yuan.
Sri Lankan tea pickers are better, earning 35 yuan a day.
the premise is that you start working in the early morning, collect enough 18 kilograms, and can withstand the attack of leeches and bees.
a significant phenomenon is that children in Sri Lanka’s tea gardens are generally malnourished, which is higher than the national average of Sri Lanka.
the reason is that female tea pickers do not have enough income to ensure nutritional intake during pregnancy. Malnutrition of the mother leads to malnutrition at birth. Lack of nutritional intake during development continues to aggravate dysplasia, and even leads to cognitive impairment of a large number of children.
industrialization brings better profits and efficiency.
many times, however, the life of farmers in the country of origin has not changed.
is not that it cannot bring about change. Industrialization can achieve miracles.
is only unwilling for profit.
if all the characteristic tea leaves from different regions of China are made into a unified standard product like Lipton production package, tea will only cause poverty but not get rid of poverty.
a large part of the interests of agricultural consumer goods ruled by oligarchs come from the exploitation of farmers.
industrial oligarchy has never been a commendatory term.
Full text reference sources are as follows:
【1】 Thomas Lipton
【2】 The benchmark stands firm New marketing, 2010, issue 03 Chen Chunlei
【3】 Lipton’s entrepreneurial history by Tea world
【4】 “Lipton” as Unilever’s “trump card”, with an annual income of 10 billion, why should it be abandoned? By Shumo Finance
【5】 “Lipton” was abandoned, and Chinese tea bags became popular in the Jianghu PAIKE: there is no taboo in finance and economics Xiao Tian
【6】 Lipton, the “king of black tea in the world” Tea market strategy (Second Edition) Bao Xiaocun Cai Zheng’an Huang Jing
【7】 Tea interest history – the history of tea brand Lipton By China Tea Museum 【8】 “King of tea” Lipton was abandoned. Is it really impossible to make tea in bags? Tiger sniffs Cbndata consumer station
【9】 How much money can Indian tea workers earn from a cup of Assam black tea Tiger sniffs Food news agency
【10】 Lipton: the late outsider turned around beautifully Yunxuan tea knowledge network 【11】 Thomas Lipton, the king of black tea in England By Pu’er tea net
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【13】 Research Report on industrial operation status and strategic consultation of China’s tea industry from 2021 to 2027 Intelligent research consulting
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food people are “watching”
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