China Food

Nestle, which has never been “cool”, why can it dominate the list of No. 1 in the world all year round?

“ 
win the whole war, not just a battle.
 ”

Text: Shen Shuaibo

Source: jinjubo Finance (ID: jinjubo)

 
Are you a cool person? Have you ever been cool?
when was the last time you saw a cool person or thing? There is no lack of spotlight in this era. It especially prefers those star technology enterprises. Many discussions have nothing to do with the main business – how talented are Huawei’s talented teenagers, why the founders of Ningde era like Linghu Chong best, and where are Tesla’s sports cars sent to space now. Although the essence of cool is a kind of spiritual admiration, it is a kind of surprise, admiration and envy that the other party can do but I can’t. But in the era of information explosion, cool is often a visual sensory experience (non derogatory), such as colorful but harmonious and advanced packaging, fashionable models with expressionless faces, and beautiful performance stages Compared with the technology industry that is easy to be cool, some industries seem a lot dull, such as food and beverage. In particular, some old giants, compared with the new brands in the limelight, people seem to lose the enthusiasm to talk about them because they don’t feel cool enough. There are always exceptions, such as Coca Cola, which was born in 1886. When mentioning it, it is hard for most people to think that it is actually 135 years old. A generation will grow old, but Coca Cola seems to be young forever. Success seems to always reward brands that always catch young people. In the 2021 “world top 500 brands” ranking released by the world brand laboratory, Coca Cola is one of the only food and beverage brands in the top 20, ranking 11th, a full 9 higher than another brand. The list was founded by Robert Mundell, the 1999 Nobel Laureate in economics and the father of the euro. It has been released for 18 consecutive years. The ranking is based on three indicators: market share, brand loyalty and global leadership. Who’s the other one? Nestle, No. 20, was founded in 1867, 19 years older than Coca Cola. Um Nestle? Looks like it’s a good match for 154? It doesn’t mean Nestle is very old, but it feels like an experienced old man: steady, down-to-earth, warm and safe. Can the above list show that Coca Cola is the first in the industry? There are few either or standard answers in the real world. We might as well look at the tracking of Fortune magazine from another perspective. In the list of the “world’s top 500” based on “revenue”, Nestle is well deserved to be the first in the industry, with a revenue of nearly 20 billion US dollars.

this ranking is somewhat surprising. However, there is no reason why the public’s sense of Nestle as “the first in the industry” has declined. In recent years, the midfield war in China’s coffee industry has been in full swing, and many rising stars have attracted the attention of countless media and capital. However, as a coffee brand that dominated most people’s school days, Nestle often appears as a “loser” in many narrative contexts. Consumers generally think Nestle is not “cool”, and I used to think so. But when I read its 154 year history, I found that Nestle is not cool in recent years. In the more than 100 years after its birth, it has never had much to do with “tide” and “cool”, but this does not prevent it from ranking first in the industry for decades. Coffee is just the tip of the iceberg of Nestle’s business empire. Nestle produces and sells milk powder, ice cream, chocolate, condiments, mineral water, tea drinks, health products and even pet food. Almost all people and pets can eat and drink. Nestle not only has instant coffee for less than 1 yuan, but also has a bottle of high-end mineral water for about 20 yuan. Paris water and St. Peilu are also Nestle’s. It is also one of the largest agents of Starbucks and has the permanent sales right of its bagged retail business in the world. Nestle is even a minority shareholder of L’Oreal for decades. It just cashed out 64 billion yuan by reducing its holdings not long ago. Even the coffee business is contrary to most people’s intuition: Nestle not only handed over its best semi annual report in more than 10 years in 2021, but also praised the coffee business in China for “achieving strong double-digit growth”. Why is the performance of Nestle coffee, which is always described as “past style”, rising instead of falling? I think Nestle can play well for its own reasons – high cost performance of instant products + all-round development of four sub categories + numerous sales channels; But it is mainly because of the industry dividend – thanks to the efforts of investment institutions and coffee rookies, China’s coffee industry is growing rapidly, and more and more people drink coffee more and more frequently. But Nestle Nestle’s coffee business is not the protagonist of today’s story, more focused on “what can learn from old consumption” topic, bird’s eye view of the essence of Nestle’s century history of growth, the following will be around three core issues: or how small companies Nestle is killing and surviving? After becoming a giant, how did Nestle defend its huge business empire and dominate the industry for decades? How much impact does the brand not cool enough have on Nestle? The article is a little long. Let’s start with a few important conclusions. You can jump and read by yourself: 1. The first principle of the food industry: satisfy hunger, delicious, safe, convenient and emotional. 2. Even if you go to the non food industry, you should also ensure the mental cognition that the parent brand is “food”. 3. The main categories should not be abandoned, but should maintain a leading position for a long time. 4. Multi category + globalization + food safety, Minimize risks to maximize benefits first principle of food industry:
充饥、美味、安全、方便、情感
 
雀巢成功的原因有很多,如果硬要浓缩成一条,我认为是它抓住了千变万化的食品行业里,在任何国家、任何时代都不会变的需求:充饥、美味、安全、方便、情感。
 
前四个可能还好理解,情感又是怎么回事?它主要跟雀巢持续且坚定押注婴儿食品和宠物食品有关,下文会详解。我把雀巢的历史简单概括为三个阶段:
  • From 1867 to 1945, the survival time was 88 years
  • From 1946 to 1996, it took 50 years
  • 1997 – now, the period of great wealth has been strong for 24 years
 
(一)1867-1945年,生存期,耗时88年
 
第一阶段,是1867-1945年的【生存期】,频繁战争+第二次工业革命下,人们需要能填饱肚子+安全卫生+方便携带和长期储存的食物,对应的刚需即为充饥、安全、方便。雀巢通过婴儿米粉、炼乳、巧克力、咖啡四大拳头产品很好地满足了这些刚需,成功从小作坊成长为跨国集团。
 
19世纪中叶的欧洲,同时经历着战事及第二次工业革命,婴儿死亡率很高,问题主要出在食物上。当时初生婴儿的食物来源主要有三类:母乳、动物奶、粥。
 
那时每户会生很多小孩,多的会生十几个,许多妈妈母乳不够、也请不起奶妈,而那些去工厂赚钱养家的母亲无法随时喂奶,因此很多人会给婴儿喂成人食品,比如动物奶和粥。但当时许多奶厂建在乡下,鲜奶在运输过程中由于营养丰富容易滋生细菌,成人喝了可能没事,但脾胃娇弱、免疫力差的小婴儿却常因此患上结核与伤寒。
至于粥,那时人们并不知道6个月前的婴儿不能喝粥,因为会引起严重的肠道疾病。婴儿患病后,由于医疗水平本来就不先进,加上普鲁士为了统一德国,在欧洲四处挑起战火,婴儿难以得到有效救治,死亡率很高。
 
也就是说,婴儿健康喂养是个很大的市场需求。雀巢的创始人Henri Nestlé曾当过十几年药剂师,拥有不少化学和生物知识。他发现这个需求后,便试着研发解决方案。最终,他在牛奶中混入了糖和面粉,并用特殊技术去除了面粉里婴儿消化不了的淀粉和酸性物质,做成了一种保质期很长的婴儿米粉。可以说,这款米粉就是当时的硬科技。
 
当时有类似功能的产品还有炼乳(一种加了糖的浓缩牛奶),雀巢最大对手英瑞公司的拳头产品就是炼乳。一战前的1905年,雀巢趁英瑞创始人去世元气大伤之际吞并了对方。由于加糖的浓缩牛奶很适合用来做牛奶巧克力,雀巢同年开始通过提供原材料和代销的方式介入巧克力业务。
 
九年后的1914年,一战就爆发了,婴儿米粉、炼乳、巧克力,都能有效充饥,且保质期长、易于运输、方便携带,在军方和民间都很受欢迎,雀巢趁机在美国和澳洲建厂生产、扩大销售,一战争结束时在全球有40家工厂。
 
一战结束后需求下降,雀巢因生产过剩库存高企,1921年出现了第一次也是迄今为止唯一一次亏损。雀巢此时第一次引入了职业经理人,通过降本增效+产品创新的方式挺了过去,还为扩大巧克力业务收购了瑞士最大的巧克力公司。
 
其中贡献最大的创新产品是速溶咖啡。1929年全球经济危机爆发,主要咖啡消费市场欧洲和北美需求锐减,咖啡价格崩盘,巴西咖啡豆严重滞销,曾有新闻报道“巴西一年就有2200万袋咖啡倒入大海”。
雀巢于是开始研究耐储存+能保持咖啡原始风味的速溶咖啡,搞了快十年终于搞成了,于1938年正式推向市场。没想到天降大运,一年之后二战爆发了,前线士兵需要喝咖啡提神,雀巢这款产品因便携耐储存,进入了美国军队的采购清单,大赚一笔。1945年二战结束时,雀巢的工厂已遍布五大洲,四大主营品类都占有很高的市场份额。
 
成立之后88年的时间里,雀巢经历过大起大落、又大起,从小作坊小公司,蜕变为职业经理人管理的初级跨国集团,算是真正渡过了生存危机,站稳了脚跟。
 
(二)1946-1996年,大富期,耗时50年
 
雀巢由此进入了第二阶段的【大富期】,大致是从1946到1996年。城市化工业化加深+战后经济繁荣,方便与美味是最急需被满足的食品需求。雀巢通过并购进入调味料、预制菜、冰激凌等高增长品类,并在咖啡、矿泉水、宠物食品等品类布局高端化,加快加深全球化经营。努力搞好食品主业的同时,去化妆品和药品行业小小搞了点副业。
 
20世纪四五十年代,第三次工业革命开始,随着工业化城市化程度加深,人们工作越来越忙、娱乐生活越来越丰富,愿意留给做饭吃饭的时间越来越少,对方便食品的需求急剧增加。不仅是咖啡、奶粉,所有食品品类都在朝“速食化”的方向一路狂奔,先是那些可以常温保存的品类——调味料、速溶茶、罐头食品….雀巢就是在这个阶段并购了知名调味品牌“美极(Maggi)”的母公司,不断推出上述品类来满足市场刚需。
 
进入60年代,欧美国家战后的经济繁荣,让普通人的购买力大大提升,冰箱、冰柜等设备终于普及,需要冷藏保存的方便食品也迎来发展红利,预制菜、速冻食物、冰激凌、酸奶等品类日渐红火。雀巢再次展开钞能力,在全球大肆收购来进入或强化这些品类。
 
事情并不总是顺利,受1975-1980年全球经济环境恶化影响,雀巢很多业务出现了亏损,一直没缓过来。1980年,雀巢的纯利润甚至由平均占销售额的3.7%直降到了2.8%。
 
1981年,日后对雀巢有重大影响的CEO汉穆·茂赫(Helmut Maucher)上任。他目标明确地一直致力于把雀巢扩建成世界第一大食品企业,且这个目标必须通过“不断扩大规模和全球化程度”来实现。于是他一边在三四年时间里快速卖掉很多亏损的品牌+允许非瑞士公民买卖雀巢股票,最大限度提高公司流动资金;一边押注宠物食品、谷物早餐、高端矿泉水等高增长品类,在全球朝它们发起新一轮的收购或合资。
 
1996年,茂赫的目标实现了,他终于把雀巢送上了全球第一的宝座,多样化+全球化策略功不可没。雀巢也在同年正式进入中国。
 
在向第一攀登的过程中,一把手必须极具魄力,他对行业的深刻理解可以不够(但团队里必须有这样一个角色,且跟CEO之间的信任非常深),但一定要敢于在所有人反对的时候坚定下注。这件事极度重要,以茂赫任期内的两个细节故事为例:
 
1)洞察到“情感”是食品消费的第一性原理之一,坚决加码奶粉+进入宠物食品:人们对自己小孩与宠物的爱,会让他们舍得付费、持续付费。
 
这两项战略决定事后证明是对的,但起初都被很多人反对和嘲笑。收购美国奶粉巨头三花时,茂赫就被嘲笑说“这个日耳曼人现在到达虚幻的兴奋顶点了”。茂赫采访中曾说“我提议我们进入宠物食品行业时,人们恨不得把我扔出去,但后来我成功了。因为我坚信人们爱他们的宠物,而且精心喂养它们,为了猫狗花多少钱人们都乐意。”
 
近几年,宠物业务已是雀巢第二大收入来源;而在全球人口增长缓慢的情况下,除中国区外,其它地区的婴儿营养品业绩都实现了增长。
2)用比对手更快的速度、更低的价格并购了多个优质标的:
 
茂赫在采访中曾提到:“在我为雀巢完成了所有并购活动的时候,别人还没有开始动手,报纸上也没有关于兼并的文章,而银行里的投资部还没有出现。我们比其他的竞争者提前完成了80%的作业。而当别人开始动手的时候,激烈的竞争战打响了,并购变的异常昂贵,同时,他们还要支付不低的信誉款。”
 
而茂赫之所以能比对手领先这么多步,跟他的经历有关:茂赫从雀巢牛奶厂的学徒干起,出任CEO前在雀巢干了30年,不仅对食品业有着极敏锐的洞察、极强的野心与行动力,也太清楚雀巢内部的症结所在,只等待一个大施拳脚的机会。
 
研发、生产、并购这些都是大公司的基操和看家本领,各家水平差不了多少,但领先强大对手的敏锐度可不常有,需要在行业里泡很多年。雀巢一直有内部提拔全球CEO的传统,直到2017年才迎来第一个空降CEO。
 
(三)1997年-现在,巨富期,已坚挺24年
 
雀巢从1997年进入第三阶段的【巨富期】,一直持续到现在。肥胖等现代病流行+新兴市场崛起,让人们对营养、健康食物的需求日益增多。已经成为世界第一的雀巢没有吃老本,不仅持续对传统优势业务修修补补,也看到了这类食品市场的增长潜力,不断有大手笔投入。
 
1997年,包必达接替茂赫成为新CEO后,将成为“营养、健康和幸福生活”领军者的定位确立为雀巢的千年战略。他同样在雀巢从基层做起,接任CEO时已在雀巢待了29年。从1997年到现在,虽然细分业务有起伏,但在大方向上,雀巢一直没有偏离这个战略,持续押注大健康。特别是2017年,医药行业出身的CEO施耐德上任后,更是动作频频,收购了不少保健品公司。
 
有人可能会问,这不正表明,“营养、健康”也应该被归到食品业的第一性原理么?
 
我觉得“营养、健康”可能是刚需,但不是第一性的。因为“安全”这个词意蕴丰富,足以囊括这个需求——追求食物的营养和健康,不就是因为怕死么。只要一种食物能给人足够的安全感,让人觉得自己可以延年益寿,它未必需要真得是健康的或有营养的,比如现在被证明吃了会让人金属中毒的古代仙丹、比如一些专骗老年人的假保健品。
 
从小作坊到小工厂,再到跨国巨头,纵观雀巢154年的历史,大大小小的市场变迁里,它并不总是反应最快的企业,但它常常是活到最后的企业里活得最好的,就在于一直抓住了这五大食品业的第一性原理——充饥、安全、方便、美味、情感。
 
绝不荒废主业
Nestle’s 100 year history also has an important enlightenment for food enterprises – no matter how many sidelines there are, the main business can not be abandoned, and we should not give in and continue to maintain a leading position. The main business here has two meanings: one is the [industry] level, which should focus on food; Second, at the [category] level, we should maintain our traditional strengths. For example, Nestle has never relaxed on milk powder and coffee. Question: what are the benefits of taking “food” as the main industry?
answer: on the one hand, we can try to avoid making disastrous wrong judgments on strategic issues. On the other hand, food is closely related to human life safety. Therefore, it is very important to build a “safe” brand image to win the trust of consumers. If consumers perceive that you still sell a lot of products that are very different from food under your brand, they will discount their trust in the brand. For example, Kraft will try to avoid mentioning its relationship with tobacco and alcohol in marketing (Kraft’s parent company is the world’s largest tobacco company). In China, consumers’ perception of Unilever is more of a daily chemical brand, but it is also one of the top ten food giants in the world. If an enterprise wants to develop in the food industry for a long time, it is very important to ensure the mental cognition that the parent brand is “food”, because this can maximize the sub brand and benefit from the brand power of the parent brand. At least in the food industry, such focus can definitely bring rich returns, because people have to eat when they live. Any industry may decline, but there is always a market for food. Nestle’s ranking first for decades is proof. In fact, Nestle also set foot in the wine industry in the 1970s and bought a winery, but it sold out within a few years. Even taking a stake in L’Oreal and acquiring Alcon, it has never shifted its main business to cosmetics and drugs with higher gross profit. More than 90% of Nestle’s annual revenue comes from food and beverage, of which food accounts for the absolute majority. Question: with so many food categories, why does Nestle never give up investment in coffee and milk powder? How?
answer: put aside the path dependence, the essential reason is that both of them are profit only and lose nothing. The former is because of addiction, while the latter is the engine and the strongest base of brand power – no food can make consumers feel safer, warmer and more reliable than baby food, and brand favor should start with dolls. Although many people feel that nestle coffee is a thing of the past, in fact, Nestle coffee’s performance has risen instead of falling, because it adheres to technology research and development and comprehensive layout. Nestle’s R & D gene has been strong since the development of hard technology baby rice noodles at that time. As for coffee, it took nearly a decade in the early years to develop instant coffee that can be produced on a large scale, and another decade in the 1980s to develop a capsule coffee machine. Nestle ranks first in the world in terms of instant and capsule. In order to maintain its absolute advantage, Nestle even took the initiative to become a competitor’s agent at a high price – it spent US $7.15 billion to buy out Starbucks’ bagged coffee business in 2018, and has the permanent right to sell Starbucks’ coffee beans, instant coffee and capsule coffee all over the world. In the instant coffee business (that is, the kind of coffee you can drink by unscrewing the bottle cap in a convenience store or supermarket), Nestle ranks first in China. Freshly ground coffee is indeed not Nestle’s strength, but as early as 2017, Nestle acquired 68% of the shares of the boutique chain coffee brand “blue bottle coffee” for $500 million. In addition, Nestle has long been in the upstream of coffee, and has its own coffee plantations and baking factories in many parts of the world. As for the milk powder business, it is another long story worth learning. However, the performance in China in recent years is indeed not very good. It has sunk four times in the sinking market over the years. It has even become the only region with negative growth in the global milk powder business in the third quarter of 2021, but it is still trying to repair it. food safety: control the process, not the result
 
食品安全对于一个食品企业的重要性不言而喻,特别是那些想做百年老店的品牌。近些年,不少食品行业的新消费品牌被爆出吃到了异物,暴露了这些企业在质量管理上的短板。
 
要建立一个有效的质量管理体系,需要从长期的生产中总结知识和经验,一个有一百多年生产历史的企业所实践出来的庞大质检体系,不可能三言两语说清楚,今天只分享我从雀巢身上看到的最重要的两条启示或者原则:
 
原则一:从根上控制
 
雀巢质检部门员工黄珺来在接受《创造共享价值》一书作者汪若涵的采访时,曾这样解释:“雀巢做什么事都是从根本上来控制的,如果原材料采购、生产和仓储等各个环节都按照规范来做的话,从理论上讲,我们不用太担心最后会生产出残次品。成品的检测只是为了验证前面的管理体系是不是出了什么问题、要怎么持续改进。这就跟你平时的生活方式很健康,那么生病就是小概率事件一样。”
 
据上书中雀巢相关人员介绍,事实上,如果消费者吃到金属异物,在食品厂算是很严重的事故,因为它可能会划伤人。
 
食品中的金属异物很多是从原料,比如糖中来的——如果糖厂的生产设备比较陈旧,管道不是不锈钢而是铸铁的,运行时间长的话,管道内的焊渣或者杂质就可能会掉下来跟糖混在一起。面对这个问题,食品厂商一般会有两道预防措施:
  • 1) Raw material screening: place magnetic rod (which can adsorb metal) to remove impurities
  • 2) Finished product inspection link: use X-ray machine and metal detector to detect defective products infiltrating metal foreign matters
 
但其实,在合格的生产商眼中,控制质量的关键不完全在添置数量足够的磁棒或金属探测器,而是要将其视为关键控制点,根据关键数据指标的波动(比如注意糖或者其他原料中,被磁棒吸出的杂质数量的变化,还有成品中金属异物出现频率的变化),按照流程倒回去排查原因、及时解决就好了。
 
知道了这个方法还会出问题,是因为管理者对各个关键控制点上,超出正常范围的数值波动视而不见或抱有侥幸心理,最终隐患积累到一程度大爆发导致的。
 
原则二:帮助有长远目光的供应商一起成长
 
有很多目光长远的供应商会正面看待雀巢在质量上的“挑刺儿”,为了应对越来越激烈的市场竞争,它们也想要逐步提高质量管理和生产水平。雀巢确实对质量要求很高,但它采购的过程讲究公平、透明、符合商业道德,也愿意共享很多管理知识——如果有供应商对雀巢的质量管理体系有兴趣,雀巢的采购部门和质量保证部会推荐他们到雀巢工厂里交流学习。
 
雀巢此举是双赢,既让很多有潜力的本土供应商获得了成长,对自身也有很大好处——长期稳定的优质供应商,可以保证产能和品质,也会降低频繁切换供应商导致的时间和金钱成本。既能赢得好口碑,也实打实地省了财务成本。
 
在与年轻人的沟通上,老牌巨头们可能显得有点迟钝,但在食品安全问题上,它们从来不会含糊,因为这笔帐真划不来——对于一个食品企业,跟砸了招牌相比,在质检环节多投入一些钱一点都不亏。如果有企业不愿意投入,那它大概率不是奔着百年老店去的。
 
雀巢在中国,还有很多硬仗要打
 
显然,跟以擅长年轻化沟通的可口可乐、很多网红(非贬义)品牌相比,雀巢给人的体感确实没那么酷。
 
从诞生起,它就像个中规中矩、按部就班的好学生,努力赚钱,努力争先,勤勤恳恳打造自己从里到外的品牌形象,一如它那个标志性的鸟巢图样的logo——温暖、安全、可靠、营养、健康。对于一个要做百年老店的食品企业来说,这些品牌形象确实比“潮流”、“酷炫”重要得多。
 
但在这场看不见的心智认知战里,这个问题真的没有影响到雀巢么?
 
起码在中国,我觉得不尽然。雀巢在调味品、宠物食品、专业餐饮仍有不错的竞争优势,但在咖啡、奶粉等传统优势品类,以及新下注的保健品品类,雀巢打得并不会轻松。
 
咖啡的增长更多是得益于行业红利,有多少人真的知道雀巢的速溶咖啡上了很多新品?有多少人买过“感CAFE”这个品牌的咖啡?有多少人知道它是雀巢的?有多少人知道它其实2017年就推出了,还是专为中国市场设计的?
 
奶粉品类,2021三季度财报中,中国市场是全球唯一婴儿营养品(奶粉占比很高)业绩负增长的区域。财报中还说婴儿营养品的负增长,抵消了咖啡、调味品、乳品和普瑞纳宠物食品的双位数增长,导致中国区只有个位数增长。只能说明,奶粉在中国的营收中占大头。
 
而雀巢大手笔押注的保健品,中国区早已强手如云。前有汤臣倍健、Swisse(澳洲品牌,已被中国的健合集团收购)、养生堂、21金维他等本土保健品品牌,后有善存、钙尔奇、爱乐维等进入中国几十年的外资品牌,更不要提燕窝等传统滋补品,还有数也数不尽的白牌在广袤的下沉市场占山为王。
 
雀巢显然知道自己在中国还有很多硬仗要打,回过神来的巨人努力克服着大公司病,开始费力修补,比如组织架构和管理上,去年正式宣布大中华区为一个完整独立的大区(最小的大区),更接地气的本土CEO上任,用孵化器和创新中心加速创新等。
 
雀巢在中国反应慢了半拍,因为低估了中国速度。
 
从食不果腹到追求健康,人们对食物的细分需求其实经历了非常明显的变化。但任何明显的变化,一旦时间线被拉长,都容易让人误以为没怎么变。因为从A需求跳到B需求时,很可能早就换了一代人了。
 
因此,很多诞生自欧美地区的老牌巨头,近年来之所以对中国市场丧失敏锐,是因为中国在短短的70多年里,就经历了它们两三百年才走完的路,在中国,一切都是被加了二倍速甚至是三倍速的。
 
而在千里之外遥控中国市场的CEO们,是很难切身感受这么惊人的速度的。一旦他们不够尊重中国本土团队的判断,不愿给予充分的放权和信任,业绩跑输行业大盘是必然的。
 
在雀巢略显迟钝的这些年里,在咖啡、奶粉、保健品上,中国已经崛起了很多细分品类的本土黑马。以有耐心著称的雀巢,会在中国延续它以往的商业传奇么?这些本土品牌最终会被雀巢或别的食品巨头收购,还是长成中国的雀巢?
 
这是一场任何人都不可能准确预测的比赛,一时的得失很难看出什么。
 
时间会给我们答案。
 
主要参考资料:
[1]雀巢官网历史简介、雀巢历年财报、投资者公告
[2]《套现640亿,雀巢要从欧莱雅喜提巨款》,小食代,2021.12.8
[3]《雀巢全球CEO首度谈重大架构调整:正在为中国市场all in》,小食代,2021.10.21
[4]《斥资372亿收购营养保健品牌Bountiful,雀巢的目标是全球维生素&营养补充剂“老大”》,植提桥,2021.5.10
[5] 《8亿!雀巢在华“押宝”宠物食品,未来10年都要高双位数增长》,小食代,2021.4.2
[6]《雀巢同意出售银鹭食品,买家为创始人陈清水家族控制公司》,财新网,2020.11.26
[7]《雀巢出售在中国水业务,青岛啤酒接盘》,财新网,2020.8.29
[8] 《从海外经验看食饮龙头成长路径及估值体系》,申万宏源研究,2018.9.26
[9]《雀巢71.5亿美元收购星巴克零售业务落定》,财新网,2018.8.30
[10]《6年500亿美元的大小收购之后,咖啡市场如今已经成了一个资本的游戏》,好奇心日报,2018.5.15
[11]《创造共享价值:雀巢“味道好极了”的经营秘诀》,汪若涵,2017
[12]《肯定是你——雀巢缔造者的经营理念》,弗里德海姆·施瓦茨,2004
本文作者:沈帅波   湃动品牌传播咨询CEO

原文标题:从来没“酷”过的雀巢,为什么能常年霸榜世界第一?| 跟老消费学什么
转载授权及媒体商务合作:Amy(微信号:13701559246);
加入社群:Cherry(微信号:15240428449)。

 Foodaily创博会2022 
Foodaily创博会2022以“新食品时代·品牌生态化”为主题,邀约500+全球最创新品牌、4000+中高层行业决策者参加…在会议(Foodaily FBIC 2022)模块,我们设置1场全球创新峰会、3场主题大会、6个品类论坛,围绕十大硬核话题设定100+场焦点话题头脑风暴,并邀请120+行业商业头部大咖进行分享~2022.05.31-06.02,上海,我们不见不散!(点击图片查看详细介绍)。
相关阅读
食品人都“在看”

Read the original text

Similar Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.