China Food

How can Japanese and fruit be so cute!

 
如何从传统中汲取营养,或许才是这些创新和菓子得以立足的关键。

 


这两年,新中式烘焙的热潮让我们看到一丝中式糕点复苏的希望。但是正如消费者所质疑的,这些新中式点心到底有多少是中式的,又有多少是西式中做(只是粗暴地披了一件中式概念的外衣)。
诚然,「创新」赋予了传统中式点心新的生命,但如何让热潮延续,涉及的方面很多。但是当我们回归到这一事物得以成立的基础,会发现其核心或许在于,创新与传统的平衡。
如何持续输出创新,如何扎根于传统,二者要如何融合(而非拼凑),又如何融入人们当下的生活,是新·中式烘焙从业者需要考虑的。
所以,我们不妨将目光转向日本,转向和菓子;因为他们,也面临着同样的问题,也在积极探索着传统点心在当下的发展道路。
Traditional sheep’s candy and sweet soup JP
just like the phenomenon of “rice separation” (eating less rice) in Japan in recent years, the phenomenon of “separation from fruit” (separation from fruit) also exists. Behind it is the impact of Western food culture, which also suggests the contradiction between heganzi rooted in traditional culture and modern life. The high sweetness and relatively single raw materials of
and fruit, the traditional aesthetics in modeling, and the close combination with traditional festivals and lifestyles have created a distance from the lives and preferences of modern people, especially young people.
thus, on one side is the persistence of tradition and fruit, on the other side, new and fruit also appear one after another, continuing the life of hefruit in two ways. From the innovation of heganzi, we may also get some inspiration about new Chinese dim sum.
The traditional “best” is usually filled with red beans, while the innovative “best” is even “sasayaiori & pretty online” with cheese cake as filling jp
1、 History of hekuang II. Basic classification of hekuang
History of and fruit
we all know that heganzi is a traditional snack in Japan. However, just like other Japanese traditional cultures, it is based on both local culture and the absorption and integration of other cultures. And fruit in the bones, originally with mixed blood genes, and this may also form a certain echo with the innovation of modern and fruit.
there are five systems for the establishment of heganzi. Among them, the oldest is the “wooden fruit”, also known as “natural fruit”, which can be traced back to the rope text era, that is, the fruit of unprocessed plants and trees, such as fruits or nuts.
at the beginning of the 7th century, ② “Tang fruit” was introduced from China. With the introduction of new ingredients and processing methods, the real “fruit” as a processed food was formed.
Eight kinds of tangguozi, Wagashi, can be found in the “collection of Japanese names” in the middle of Ping’an or. jp
The old shop in Kyoto, Jingyu fruit division, kiyoo kiyoo, is still making “Tang fruit” 5106 JP
Tang fruits are mostly made of rice flour, wheat flour and other grain flour as raw materials, which are shaped and fried. At present, “Tang fruit” is mainly used as a sacrifice in front of God and Buddha, which has been rarely seen in people’s daily life. However, ③ “cake” and “cuzi” produced by the influence of “Tang fruit” have become the basis of harmony fruit since then.
“cake” is often translated into Chinese as New Year cake, while “Jizi” is translated into dumplings. The two are mainly distinguished by shape, and the raw materials are grains such as rice, wheat or millet.
From segawa-21 & Bob an
to the end of Kamakura era (14th century), Chinese ④ dim sum was introduced into Japan by Zen monks, including steamed bread filled with meat and mutton soup. Because monks banned meat, they replaced it with red beans, forming Japanese tea “steamed bread” and “mutton soup”.
in the Warring States period (15th ~ 16th century), Japan began to communicate with Western European countries. The so-called ⑤ “Nanman fruit” which used granulated sugar and eggs in production was introduced, including Nagasaki cake, Jinping sugar, Pingtang, etc.
before that, the sweetness in the fruit mostly came from Caramel made of honey and grain or syrup made of plants such as Pueraria. Until then, the granulated sugar was intermittently imported into Japan through Portuguese merchant ships. In the subsequent Edo era (17th-19th century), with the increase of imports and the development of domestic sugar industry, granulated sugar, once regarded as a high-grade product, also entered ordinary people’s homes, and the “sweet” feature of fruit was further established.
The three external influences on hekozi in history 𞓜 fugetsudo Ueno
inherited the above five systems, and hekozi developed rapidly in the Edo era. Most of hekozi we can see now were born at this time. On the one hand, this is due to long-term peace and stability and economic development. On the other hand, it also benefits from the exchanges and competition between the two major cultural centers of Kyoto and Edo.
among them, “jingkoko” in Kyoto is divided into “Luozhong” and “luowaixing”. Based on the elegant public culture (which can be understood as Japanese court culture) and tea ceremony culture, Luozhong pursues the five senses of Koko, namely taste, smell, touch, vision and hearing (referring to the name of Koko), and pays attention to the combination with Japanese classical literature, history, customs and nature, It can be said that it has laid the aesthetic tone of heganzi. “Luowaixing” is more civilian, mainly combined with local traditional festivals and beliefs.
in addition, the “shangkoko” born in Edo (distinguished from the cheap “yukoko”) combines the martial culture and is more simple, so it is widely loved by warriors and civilians.
Jingtangzi is also often regarded as a traditional art in Japan. In the Meiji Era (19th-20th century), foreign Tangzi poured into Japan with western culture. Although the previous hekozi absorbed Chinese tangkozi and dim sum and Western European Nanman Tangzi, it was gradually shaped based on Japan’s customs and aesthetic consciousness, while the Western dim sum that entered Japan after Meiji was not absorbed into the context of hekozi. Therefore, until this time, there was a concept of distinguishing between “heguozi” and “foreign Guozi”.
of course, the two are not completely incompatible. By combining the raw materials and preparation methods of “foreign fruit”, the so-called “foreign compromise fruit” was born, which is typical of red bean bread. However, in modern times, with the progress of internationalization, the boundary between “hekozi” and “foreign kozi” is gradually blurred. Just like the emergence of “foreign style and food” and “Hefeng and foreign food”, foreign style and kozi with foreign kozi elements and “Hefeng and foreign kozi” with hekozi elements also appear one after another, showing a highly diverse situation.
and basic classification of fruits
and fruit are mainly distinguished according to water content and preparation method. First, according to the water content, it can be divided into three categories, namely “raw fruits” with water content of 30% or more, “semi raw fruits” with water content of 10% ~ 30%, and “dry fruits” with water content of less than 10%.
raw fruit can be further divided into cakes (cakes), steamed goods (steamed goods), burnt goods (steamed goods), liquid goods (liquid goods), refined goods (refined goods) and fried goods (raised goods) according to the preparation method.
the cake is made of rice or rice flour by tamping or kneading; Steaming, burning and frying are processed by steaming, baking and frying respectively; If the fluid is like sheep soup, add coagulants such as cold weather to set the mold; The training material is mainly made of white bean sand, sugar and glutinous rice powder. It is especially diverse in shape.
Representatives of raw fruit: Yingbing, steamed bread, gongshao, JinYuTang, Lian cut, bean doughnut 𞓜 Wagashi_ TOKYO、segawa、sugitanihonpo、tawaraya_ unryu、kanro. co.jp、kiiroikuruma
semi raw fruit is further divided into stuffing (stuffing), ganging (stuffing), burning (stuffing), flowing (flowing) and practicing (practicing) according to the preparation method.
among them, red bean stuffing is the main ingredient, which can maximize the flavor of the stuffing. For example, stone coating is made by wrapping a thin layer of sugar coating on the red bean stuffing; Gangwu combines different ingredients without heating. In addition to the most mentioned above, there is also a kind of fruit called Zhoubang and fruit, which is similar to domestic bean sugar. It is made by adding water malt into cooked soybean powder; As for the burning, flowing and refining materials, they are basically the same as the relevant classifications in raw fruits, with the difference only in the water content.
The fillings and mounds in half raw fruits are represented by Shiyi, Zhoubang Azabu Aono and koyomi-seikatsu
. As for dry fruits, according to the preparation method, they can be divided into beating materials (beating materials), pressing materials (holding materials), hanging materials (hanging materials), burning materials (materials), malt materials (materials) and explosives (materials).
beating and pressing materials are made of cooked grain flour as the main raw materials and pressed with wood mold. The difference is that the moisture content of the pressing material is slightly higher and the solubility in the mouth is better; Hanging objects adopt the method of hanging sugar or sugar stains, such as the one similar to domestic rice flower sugar (pronounced J ù n in Chinese) ǚ, Japanese pronunciation is おこしししおこしししおおここししししし; The classification of burnt and fried fruits is similar to that of raw and semi-raw fruits; Maltose is the main raw material of maltose.
The representatives of beating, pressing, hanging and malting in dried fruit: falling wild goose, salt kettle, oyster, Youping sugar, WA gokoro and blog livedoor. jp、daikoku. ne. jp、KITAJIMA
combined with the history and classification of Hezi, we can see that Hezi is mainly made of plant materials in terms of raw materials, and the only animal materials come from the eggs in Nanman fruit; Among the plant materials, grains and beans are the main ones. In addition, they also inherit the plants and fruits in the fruits, such as chestnuts, persimmons and so on.
in terms of preparation method, the process of processing grain into powder laid the foundation for the production of many fruits and fruits, which also came from the introduction of early Tang fruits. In addition, the emergence and extensive use of granulated sugar is also of great significance to the development of and fruit. In addition to providing pure sweetness, it can also be used as an adhesive in beating, pressing and hanging things, and provide color for burning things. It is also used in almost all and fruit, which can be traced back to the introduction of Nanman fruit.
however, even if it was formed under the influence of foreign culture, hotoko was established based on Japan’s own customs and humanities, which is why hotoko was prefixed with “harmony”.
但人们的生活不是一成不变的,全球化也使各国的物产能够在世界范围内得以快速流通,和菓子的创新并非为求新而新,很大程度上是为了顺应时代的变化。
同时,创新和菓子也并未脱离传统,如何从传统中汲取营养,或许才是这些创新和菓子得以立足的关键。

作者:叶涛;来源:CIB烘焙技术研究所(ID:CIBTCN),转载已获得授权。
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