China Food

Beijing Supply Chain under the epidemic: what has the Internet platform learned

market should give play to the value of the market and let enterprises do what they should do.

Text: Guan Yiwen

Source: latepost (ID:

Urban supply chain is an existence that no one cares about on weekdays, but it is like a miracle.
Just take fresh food as an example. In Beijing, with a nominal permanent population of 21.89 million and more actual residents, 7377 tons of vegetables, more than 9000 pigs and nearly 5000 tons of fruit are eaten in a normal day. More than 90% of the food has been transported from other places to seven agricultural wholesale markets in Beijing, and then diverted to 267 farmers’ markets, more than 500 large supermarket chains, the back kitchen of 2000 catering enterprises, and the kitchen of tens of millions of families. Finally, 20000 tons of domestic waste is discharged from Beijing every day.
This huge system has no unified deployment and command, but has grown naturally in the market environment for decades. Government agencies, state-owned enterprises, Internet platforms and thousands of small and medium-sized enterprises and individual owners jointly ensure the operation of a super city and provide unlimited consumption choices for residents in the city.
After the outbreak of Omikron, based on the dynamic clearing policy, some regions and even the whole city were sealed off. The original natural and decentralized supply was no longer effective, and the operation was centralized. At this time, people recall how magical it is that the originally taken for granted consumerism life can exist.
On April 23, at the press conference of Beijing Xinguan prevention and control, the number of newly confirmed cases became 20. “It has been hidden and spread for a week” and “further cases will be found in the future”. Two days later, a relatively large temporary control area was set up.
A strong sense of uncertainty is reflected in each individual, and all they can do seems to be hoarding more materials. The founder of a fresh supermarket received the largest order since its opening on April 25. A customer placed an order of tens of thousands of Yuan offline. Finally, they used a truck to deliver the food to Shunyi villa.
By early May, the material supply in Beijing had not been interrupted, and the fear of looting had temporarily disappeared, but a new test had just begun. After the May Day holiday, Beijing continued to suspend dining hall food in the city, and asked the most populous Chaoyang District to work at home on May 9. As of press time (May 9), Beijing has divided a total of 180 sealed off areas and 176 controlled areas, which means that residents in hundreds of thousands of buildings in hundreds of districts are isolated at home, and all their materials rely on door-to-door delivery.
These responsibilities have shifted to Internet companies. Restaurants only support consumers to pick up or take out. In the five days of the May Day holiday, the catering take out orders of meituan and hungry platform have increased by more than 30%. About 2000 restaurants in meituan alone have applied for the “city wide delivery”.
From takeout, flash delivery, to fresh supermarket for door-to-door delivery, to ordinary e-commerce, these services, which have been built with tens of billions of dollars of financing in the past few years, have become an important infrastructure to maintain the operation of a city at a critical moment.
“Jiuxianqiao”, “internal circulation”
Adjust the distribution site according to the sealing policy
Jingdong and meituan have hundreds of distribution stations in Beijing. Every day, JD express needs to deliver in multiple communities within several square kilometers covered by the site. Meituan riders also need to pick up goods from merchants in different regions, and then send them to scattered communities according to the path recommended by the algorithm. Under normal circumstances, this model can meet the various needs of consumers to the greatest extent.
However, when the epidemic spreads, couriers and riders may go to medium and high-risk areas to become “close contact”, and then temporarily close the whole site, resulting in the loss of transport capacity of dozens of people at a time. According to the data released by local governments, tens of thousands of couriers and riders in Xi’an and Shanghai were unable to work normally during the epidemic.
Now, the platform began to adjust the distribution scope according to the changes of the epidemic situation, allowing distribution personnel to provide services in a region or even a single community.
At more than 7 a.m. every day, the ten member team of JD courier disinfects the whole body and puts on protective clothing at the door of guangguangli community near Beijing SKP. Their first thing is to collect the garbage that the residents in these buildings put at their respective gates. Next, the delivery began. Different from the usual rhythm of delivery once in the morning and afternoon, they increased the delivery frequency to once every two hours.
Guangguangli community was listed as a high-risk area on April 26. It is about 20000 square meters and more than 3000 families are scattered in 11 buildings and more than 30 bungalows. Among them, more than 100 households in four buildings can’t get out of their homes and can’t go downstairs to get express.
In these buildings, Jingdong’s couriers not only have to deliver Jingdong’s goods, but also have to send boxes of horses, meituan, dingdong to buy vegetables, four connections and one arrival, and community.
The order information of other platforms will not be transferred to JD’s system and cannot be classified quickly. Jingdong’s couriers took a marker and wrote down the number of buildings, units and tens of thousands on the printed slip of each order. After sorting them according to the buildings, they pulled the scooter and began door-to-door distribution.
Jingdong couriers in charge of Guanghui Li community are all young, about 22 years old. The youngest was born in 2002, but they have experienced the epidemic in Tianjin. A total of 112 people were transferred from Tianjin to Beijing with them.
This model was first explored by JD logistics and Jiuxianqiao community in early April: JD set up a temporary site outside the sealed area, sent residents’ packages from the temporary site to the sealed area by means of “short-distance connection”, and then delivered to the door by more than a few JD couriers stationed inside.
Every morning, at about the same time when Jingdong express arrives at the post, meituan’s takeout riders have also been waiting at Shuangjing Carrefour supermarket. It is located within the scope of the first batch of temporary control areas on April 25, with a total area of more than 6 square kilometers, covering more than 20 communities in Jinsong, Shuangjing and Panjiayuan streets. This part of the area is under closed management, and only riders holding passes in the guaranteed supply enterprises can enter and exit.
A commercial supermarket stationed rider of meituan in the sealed control area receives orders online for almost 10 hours every day. He is mainly responsible for distributing the orders of this Carrefour supermarket, which are basically vegetables, rice flour, grain and oil, and the number of orders is 2-3 times that of ordinary times.
Before the temporary control area was deregulated, these riders mainly stayed in several fixed supermarket stores and only received orders from the temporary control area. This is meituan’s “internal circulation distribution mode”. It is an independent distribution network temporarily established according to the epidemic situation. A small distribution area is generated on the original system, with riders and businesses in the temporary control area.
The official launch of “internal circulation distribution” was at 4:40 p.m. on April 24. The day before, meituan received a notice that the large areas of the streets related to Jinsong, Shuangjing and Panjiayuan should be closed as temporary control areas. At 5 p.m. on the 23rd, the company began to call for the organization of “internal circulation distribution” team, called for distribution to each site and encouraged employees to sign up themselves.
Official data show that on May 6, 15 e-commerce platforms such as meituan shopping, HEMA shopping, dingdong shopping and daily Youxian provided 76888 orders for the temporary control area in Chaoyang District.
At the end of the first week of May, in the Shuangjing control area, which first entered the silent state, several cells have been unsealed, but some cells have been unsealed for two days and re entered the sealed state. There are almost no pedestrians and cars on the auxiliary roads between the communities, and only the distribution personnel with passes flow on the road, yellow, red, blue, green and various colors.
Provide more services to support “volunteers”
In the epidemic control area of Beijing, residents of the sealed and controlled community cannot go out of the community, and some are isolated at home. The goods they buy online are generally uniformly distributed to the contactless shelf at the door of the community or the connection point designated by the community.
In some communities, there are many elderly people, it is inconvenient to go upstairs and downstairs, and picking up goods may also be cross infected. Some communities will choose volunteers to distribute goods to residents’ homes.
But even looking at the delivery without technical content, the efficiency of professional couriers and community volunteers is also very different.
When they came to guangguangli community on the first day, Jingdong couriers saw a lot of goods blocked at the door of the community. At the beginning, the volunteers in the community directly held three packages in their hands, then sent them to three different units, and then came back to pick up the goods.
Jingdong express team first determines the buildings in their charge in groups, sorts large and small packages at the door of the community, and places them separately according to the buildings, sizes and whether meals are served. After sorting, they use board cars to transport them in batches according to the building and unit number.
With ten people and six hours, more than 300 parcels at the door of the community were sorted and delivered to residents’ homes – about one per minute.
Similar terminal distribution methods are also applied to the temporary control area of Shuangjing street. 22 couriers are responsible for the material distribution of 75 buildings in 10 communities of Shuangjing street.
The distribution scope of Guanghui Li community is centralized. JD has adopted the method of one-to-one correspondence between couriers and specific buildings and distribution categories, and delivered to the door.
Shuangjing street is different. The temporary control area includes multiple communities, and the number of buildings is much more than guangguangli, so 22 people cannot be delivered to the door. JD express delivers packages to the shelves downstairs of each unit every day and disinfection and sterilization them, and then contacts residents one by one to collect them to avoid gathering. For residents with mobility difficulties, JD express will deliver goods to the door.
The smallest unit of Beijing epidemic prevention and control is a building in the community. JD logistics can provide flexible and customized distribution services according to epidemic prevention requirements. Arranging couriers to enter closed communities to provide voluntary services is one of the ways. In addition to delivering packages, these couriers also help share the work of nucleic acid testing and registration, transporting domestic waste and distributing community materials.
The specific services to be undertaken by the couriers of Internet companies need specific consultation between the company and the community. In Jiuxianqiao, the arrangement between the community and is that couriers do community volunteer service from 8:00 a.m. to 17:00 a.m. after 17:00, the packages are delivered to the door of each community, and they start sorting and distribution.
The implementation of “Jiuxianqiao mode” requires the strong support of the community and a lot of human investment. In Jiuxianqiao, Jingdong North China public affairs team reached an agreement with Beijing Chaoyang District epidemic prevention office and submitted written materials in Jiuxianqiao sub district office; Report to the street director in the morning of the next day, and determine the specific details and plans with the community in the afternoon; At eight o’clock in the morning of the third day, dozens of Jingdong couriers were in place and divided into five groups: fifteen or six large, five or six small, and two area managers, who were responsible for communication with the community.
In Shuangjing street, after the street office visited to understand the needs of residents, it took the initiative to communicate and coordinate with JD logistics, which sent couriers to settle in the temporary control area to be responsible for package transportation.
At present, nongguangli community in Jinsong street also adopts this model. In more communities, Jingdong couriers send goods to the contactless shelves at the door of the community, and then residents go downstairs to get them.
Skip the transfer link
Prepare goods according to 3-5 times of demand
During the epidemic in Shanghai in the spring of 2022, everyone’s pace of life was disrupted. Many of them, starting from the alarm clock at 5:50, clenched their mobile phones and opened various platform applications that can buy vegetables.
After 6 o’clock, only a few lucky people successfully pay and place orders, and more people will watch the goods in the shopping cart decrease one by one and gradually become gray and out of stock.
Sufficient materials are the premise of everything. Every city will have a scene of grabbing vegetables, and once consumers start to panic, they buy more goods than they actually need, exacerbate the shortage of materials, and then become more panic and exacerbate the shortage, which is a vicious circle. Many people from insurance supply enterprises told latepost later that what the local government is most worried about is the anxiety of residents.
In more than ten years of working experience in Wumart supermarket, Yang Haiqi has experienced several rush purchases, such as the rush to buy salt in 2011 and the rush to buy caused by the epidemic in Xinfadi wholesale market in 2020. However, the storm of hoarding vegetables at the end of April this year was the most intense one he had witnessed.
At the peak of food hoarding on April 25, around 20 p.m., the freezer goods of a hemamen store in Chaoyang District were almost sold out, and the clerk temporarily filled the shelves with instant noodles.

During the peak period, HEMA Beijing stores added more than 100 tons of goods per day. At the end of April, HEMA increased the stock volume of Beijing stores to 4-5 times that of daily stores, reaching more than 500 tons per day. It was concentrated in fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs, milk and other necessary materials for people’s livelihood. The main sources of goods came from direct mining bases in Shandong, Inner Mongolia, Hebei and other provinces.
Supermarkets are better prepared. Reserve materials according to the amount of 3-5 times, concentrate on people’s livelihood materials such as fruits, vegetables, meat, eggs and milk, send vehicles for replenishment many times a day, coordinate the national direct mining base to increase procurement, etc. These are the routine actions of every supermarket.
In order to ensure that materials can enter the city, the Beijing municipal government relaxed the restrictions on truck driving in late April. At ordinary times, from 6:00 to 23:00 every day, trucks are prohibited from passing on the roads within the Fifth Ring Road of Beijing. From around April 25, as long as the trucks designated by Wumart, HEMA, dingdong and other guarantee supply enterprises have passes, they can also drive into the Fifth Ring Road of Beijing during the day to replenish the stores in time.
In the past, the transportation link of HEMA was the advanced warehouse of foreign goods, and then transported to the store. This time, HEMA coordinated the suppliers to directly deliver instant noodles, cans, quick-frozen food and other goods from the processing plant to Beijing HEMA store, eliminating the transfer link of the warehouse, which can not only reduce the shelf time of goods, but also reduce the pressure of the warehouse.
“Full shelves will give consumers a sense of security and reduce panic.” Zhang Xinyu, deputy general manager of Beijing HEMA, told us, “if consumers buy something on the first day and the next day, they will feel that they can buy it on the third day, so they won’t panic.”
A supermarket senior said to us, “now the supermarket is not just a supermarket, it is a hope.”
HEMA also adopts the method of circular replenishment. At ordinary times, HEMA’s stores will not have full-time replenishers. In order not to affect consumers’ shopping, replenishment is usually completed quietly when there is less passenger flow, and the time is relatively fixed. In response to the rising shopping demand of the epidemic, 40 hemamen stores in Beijing have dispatched full-time replenishers to replenish at any time to ensure that the shelves will not be vacant.
The layout of the store has also been adjusted. In the past, the vegetables, fruits and meat of HEMA were packaged by the processing center, and the amount was small. Just two people had a meal. Now, HEMA has temporarily added a bulk vegetable (meat) sales area to facilitate consumers’ demand for mass purchase. In the past, the stores used to sell promotional products in the current season. Now they will put people’s livelihood commodities such as rice flour, grain and oil, mineral water and instant noodles. Customers can see them as soon as they enter the door, which is convenient for purchase and makes them “not panic”.
Supermarkets with different positioning are ensuring the supply of basic materials. Fresh supermarket T11 sells more than 7000 SKUs on weekdays, most of which are fresh, and has a large number of dry cooked imported steaks in different parts – up to hundreds of yuan per person.
But now, selling people’s necessities is more important. At the end of April, T11 launched its dry goods list document, which showed the best-selling commodities of T11 during the epidemic in the past two years, involving 261 livelihood commodities in four categories: fresh egg and milk, rice flour, grain and oil, rest food and water and daily household cleaning. T11 also prepared 4-5 times the quantity for these commodities, enough to sell for more than a month.
Ding Dong has accumulated clearer experience in buying vegetables in Shanghai. Ding Dong usually has 2500 SKUs for fresh goods when buying vegetables. After the spread of the epidemic in Shanghai, Ding Dong first reduced to 1500 at the end of March, and then reduced to 1200, freeing the warehouse to the commodities most urgently needed by Shanghai residents. The packaging and weight of goods have also been modified again and again. One pork is changed from 300g suitable for two people to 1kg, and one cabbage is changed from 500g to 2kg, which is convenient for consumers to buy and saves processing and sorting time.
After several outbreaks, Ding Dong has made three plans for buying vegetables according to “light, medium and heavy”. At present, Beijing adopts the “light” plan in Shanghai, such as enlarging the packaging and taking some goods off the shelf.
On May 1, Beijing’s catering enterprises suspended Hall Food and increased the stock of prefabricated dishes such as HEMA and dingdong. Prefabricated dishes have been popular since the end of last year. They can be heated and eaten at home, so that people without cooking experience can eat decent meals at home.
HEMA launched the special project of prefabricated vegetables, transferred goods from many places across the country, and the stock volume is three times that of daily. The stock volume of the popular product “boxing shrimp” bought by Ding Dong is 3-5 times that before the epidemic. At the same time, dingdong also opened emergency factories in Beijing and Yanjiao, Hebei Province to increase the stock of some cooked food and dishes such as Cai Changqing.
For those merchants who have not done takeout before, meituan takeout and hungry have launched the “merchant online green channel” service to streamline the process, complete the qualification review as soon as 1 hour, and the merchants can go online on the day of application.
Hungry has opened a “family quality package” zone and added more than 100 packages for family dining scenes, including Meizhou Dongpo, xiaodadong, jindingxuan, Tangcheng kitchen, Hannah mountain and other brands have launched family takeout packages for 3-6 people.
There is a shortage of people in all links
Especially the sorter
On April 8, Xu Lei, CEO of JD group, publicly said that he would do his best to support Shanghai. However, in the following weeks, JD’s orders did not arrive as expected by Shanghai citizens, and the delivery time was constantly delayed.
At the beginning of April, two-thirds of Jingdong’s couriers in Shanghai alone were sealed off, and only nearly 10000 couriers were on duty in Shanghai, less than 20% of the usual. Finally, JD can only transfer people from all over the country.
Xu Ruofei, the person in charge of human resources in East China of JD logistics, said that they began to issue a call to all regions of JD logistics in China on April 5. 3246 people went to Shanghai in the first batch, “the number of applicants is much larger than those who came.” Subsequently, hundreds of people were added, with a total scale of almost 4000, and the distribution speed was improved.
When the supplies are ready enough, more people are needed to sort and transport them. Various Internet platforms also began to reserve personnel in advance at an early stage.
What is most lacking is the first-line transport capacity. Are you hungry? There are more than 10000 takeout delivery workers in Beijing and part-time delivery workers as a supplement to the transportation capacity. The number of delivery workers of meituan takeout will only be more.
However, after the suspension of hall food in Beijing, the transport capacity pressure of the takeout platform quickly increased. Meituan has opened “shared employee” cooperation with catering and retail enterprises to coordinate idle practitioners to join the distribution link.
This model was first introduced by HEMA in the early stage of the epidemic in 2020, calling on employees of catering enterprises to work in HEMA temporarily to ensure that the supply of goods in HEMA is not interrupted, and HEMA will pay corresponding labor remuneration; At the same time, it also helps catering enterprises alleviate the pressure on employees’ wages caused by the suspension of business due to the epidemic.
In the middle of March this year, this model was restarted in Shanghai. Zhangxinyu said that this has become a methodology that can be quickly copied in HEMA.
In order to supplement the transportation capacity, dingdong buys vegetables mainly by allocating and supplementing elastic transportation capacity in various regions of the city, with a small amount of support from outside the city. Elastic transportation capacity mainly refers to the continuous recruitment of part-time and hourly workers together with partners and recruitment platforms. During the May Day holiday, the number of distributors in dingdong increased by nearly 40% compared with that in normal times.
Meituan and hungry have also launched more flexible modes of “cross regional dispatching and distribution” and “stationary distribution”. Meituan deployed 1.5 times the transportation capacity, and the centralized security provider overbooked; Hungry? Special rider teams have been organized from some areas with surplus transportation capacity to support order distribution around the temporary control area and sealing area, and 10-20% more delivery personnel have been assigned to some supermarkets in Chaoyang District and Fengtai District.
When orders were expanding rapidly, the biggest problem meituan encountered in buying vegetables was not materials or transportation capacity, but sorting. During the storm of storing vegetables at the end of April, meituan increased the sorting manpower by 70% for the first time in Beijing, exceeding the increase of distribution manpower by 50%.
A meituan vegetable buyer explained that when the whole box of materials are transported to the central warehouse, the warehouse personnel need to package the vegetables, fruits and meat according to a certain amount, and then transport them to hundreds of front warehouses in the city in batches. After consumers place an order, the sorter’s job comes. They need to find and bag dozens of goods purchased by consumers in dozens of freezers and normal temperature cabinets in the front warehouse as soon as possible, and finally hand them to the delivery clerk.
The experience of Shanghai has led meituan to find that sorting is the most easily blocked link of orders – the land rent of the front warehouse in the urban area is high, the space is limited, and the number of sorting personnel that can be arranged is also limited. In the actual link, it is often riders and other goods, rather than goods and others. A basic sorter often needs six weeks of training. The meituan vegetable buyer said, “the efficiency gap between a mature sorter and a novice is about five times.”
When there is spare power, the Internet platform is also supporting the sorting of offline stores. Meituan flash purchase has launched the “exclusive picker of supermarkets”, which supports the surge of orders and stores to assist in picking. The first batch of pickers have been employed in Jingkelong Jinsong mall store and Jingkelong Shuanglong store.
After the outbreak in Beijing, meituan, hungry, dingdong and other platforms also increased subsidies and incentives for distributors.
Ding Dong has basically kept all front-line employees on duty during the epidemic period. Therefore, Ding Dong has increased the number of compensatory leave and compensatory leave after the epidemic, as well as meal allowance, group construction and other subsidies; Hungry has increased the unit price of areas affected by epidemic control, and no longer penalizes riders for overtime orders in these areas.
Meituan has invested 6-8 million yuan in rider subsidies and replenished them according to the order to ensure the rider’s income. A delivery clerk of meituan takeout in Chaoyang District told us that since May, the daily delivery orders have increased by 20 or 30 orders. With more orders and subsidies, his daily income has increased by 200 or 300 yuan. Meituan takeout riders can appeal against abnormal orders caused by the epidemic, and meituan said it would be exempted from liability.
Latepost learned that the Beijing municipal government convened a meeting of many enterprises in mid April to understand the experience and needs of various companies in the epidemic and prepare to formulate a detailed prevention and control plan.
The Beijing government has established a “white list” mechanism to issue passes to the distribution personnel of guaranteed supply enterprises. When necessary, the government will help solve the pop-up problem of the delivery personnel when the material supply is tight, such as the peak period of vegetable hoarding at the end of April, which lasted more than a week at that time.
At that time, “daily nucleic acid negative”, “never been to medium and high-risk areas” and “not close contact” – as long as these conditions are met and the distributor of the guarantee and supply enterprise can release the pop-up window after reporting.
At that time, after the “pop-up window”, the distribution personnel will not be able to get the goods from the store or enter the community. A person from a fresh e-commerce platform told us that on April 24, nearly 100 employees of his company popped up and applied for cancellation according to the new policy. The next day, except for one-third of those still under control, the pop-up windows of other employees were eliminated.
A person from the guarantee and supply platform said that a Beijing municipal government official recently communicated with him and said that what the government should do is guidance and service: formulate rules and provide convenience to enterprises. “The market should give full play to the value of the market and let enterprises do what they should do.”
It is the epidemic spread scale
that determines the efficiency of “supply guarantee” of Internet platforms
As of May 9, the containment scope of the epidemic in Beijing was only a small part of the city. Many Beijing residents who have watched the Shanghai epidemic news for more than a month have made preparations in advance. Internet companies have also mobilized huge resources, including 3-5 times of materials and at least 30-40% of manpower.
Originally, the supply system of a city was completed by thousands of enterprises and tens of millions of people.
In this system, the largest distribution team is actually the consumers themselves – going to the vegetable market to buy vegetables, eating in the restaurant and shopping in the supermarket. Excluding cars and real estate, 70% of the Chinese people’s annual consumption expenditure of 40 trillion yuan occurs offline, and the consumption of restaurants is more than four times that of takeout.
When the epidemic was sealed and controlled, offline consumption plummeted, and all work was transferred to distributors and community volunteers. The spread of the epidemic often means that a large number of distributors are isolated and distribution sites are sealed.
If the scope of sealing and control is spread and the time is prolonged, the difficulty of ensuring supply is also increasing sharply. If placed in the total population ranking of European countries, Beijing or Shanghai can squeeze into the top 10.
The closure and control of the epidemic has proved that China’s large Internet platforms can effectively provide basic survival guarantee for tens of millions of people in a single city by mobilizing and pooling resources from many places at all costs.
During this period, various Internet platforms encountered inexplicable challenges that they could not imagine at ordinary times, and gave full play to their imagination to solve problems.
In the early stage of the epidemic in Shanghai, the traffic between cities in the Yangtze River Delta was poor. Jingdong Logistics, together with Jingdong health and Jingdong Shangchao business, temporarily established a number of special warehouses for temporary guarantee and supply in Shanghai, in which large packages of milk, rice flour, grain and oil and other necessities were placed. Jingdong’s special warehouse for guarantee and supply in Jinshan, Shanghai was completed in three or four days. It was 2000 square meters in the early stage and expanded to 6000 square meters a week later.
Meituan medicine launched the function of “looking for medicine in the whole city” in Shanghai to help patients buy urgently needed drugs. The search scope of drugs has expanded from the conventional 3-5 kilometers in the past to 16 districts in Shanghai. Once the delivery range exceeds the normal distance, the order will automatically arouse meituan’s errand service.
Common barriers and process problems between companies and departments are quickly overcome in emergencies. Internet companies quickly gathered a commercial force to solve problems.
However, when a super city stops completely, it is difficult for such a force to completely replace its original supply chain and allow tens of millions of people to maintain a normal life.
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