There is no hatred for no reason in the world, unless you happen to send snail powder that can’t be found in our group.
Under the seal, shopping is not as convenient as usual. Many people get what they want by exchanging things for things. If you have Coke or snail powder, you will probably change to anything you want. These drinks and snacks that can be bought everywhere have become hard currency in the sealed community.
Snail powder has not been popular recently. Since the beginning of the epidemic in 2020, the local food in Liuzhou City, Guangxi has quickly spread all over the country like stepping on a rocket. There are hundreds of kinds of rice noodles in China, but at present, only snail powder is so popular that it has been independently turned into a convenient and fast food by tmall and other e-commerce platforms; In the past two years, in the year-end reports of new e-commerce platforms such as Kwai and Tiktok, snail powder has been listed every time.
Online popularity also continued offline. According to the 2022 new catering industry research report released by meituan last month, although the total number of snail powder orders in meituan takeout orders in 2021 was not large enough, it was superior to all categories with an average annual compound growth rate of 76.1%, and the growth rate even exceeded that of milk tea.
Many people attribute the popularity of snail powder to Li Ziqi and live broadcasting, but I think this is a very one-sided conclusion, because live broadcasting is only a sales channel and means, which can not solve the two core influencing factors of sales – public cognition and production capacity.
The argument that Li Ziqi has fire snail powder is also untenable. At the beginning of 2020, when snail powder began to grow explosively, Li Ziqi had about 80 million fans in the whole network in China, which is indeed the top stream. However, in addition to snail powder, her video has also recommended various powders such as hot and sour potato powder, lotus root powder, hot and sour sweet potato powder, pea jelly and so on. However, no single product can match snail powder in terms of topic and sales volume.
In fact, before Li Ziqi, there were other people who made snail powder complete public cognition. On the supply side, only relying on the natural reaction of the market, it is impossible to build an industry with a scale of more than 10 billion in just two years. In China, the operator of an explosive product may be an enterprise, but the operator of an industry must be the local government – before the epidemic, under the guidance of industrial policies, there was a large-scale industrial chain in Liuzhou, the main producing area of bagged snail powder.
Among the contemporary Chinese catering categories, in addition to snail powder, there are also Shaxian snacks, the largest Chinese fast food giant with nearly 90000 stores across the country, far exceeding KFC McDonald’s. If we say that after watching the causes and consequences of snail powder out of the circle, people can’t help feeling what is the favor of the times; The rise of Shaxian snacks will certainly let you understand what is “disobedience” engraved in the bones of the Chinese people.
It is with this spirit that China has created many economic miracles in world history in the past few decades, pulling hundreds of millions of people away from the loess land and getting rid of the fate of relying on heaven.
At a time when China’s economy is experiencing a shift in growth, understanding how snail powder stands on the shoulders of its predecessors and takes off by taking advantage of the Internet, and understanding how Shaxian snacks counter attack to become the first in the industry under the rotten brand is a good reference for understanding the development of many modern industries in China at present and in the future.
How did snail powder catch fire on the consumer side?
There are four main reasons for the popularity of snail powder at the consumer end:
1. The product itself is delicious in line with the national taste; There is contrast, with its own topic degree (smelling and eating);
2. Pave the way for the content of mass culture and complete the initial mass cognition;
3. The epidemic has accelerated, and the circle of convenience food with heavy taste and storage resistance has broken;
4. It has the characteristics of cultural symbols and industrial poverty alleviation, which has been greatly promoted by the official media.
First, the product is delicious enough and has its own topic.
The delicious taste of snail powder – sour, spicy, fresh and refreshing, is in line with the national taste rather than the local taste, which is an important premise for it to go out of the region and go to the country. Except for people with bad teeth, most people actually like the q-play of rice noodles very much. Since ancient times, Chinese people have loved fresh and sour. The popularity of Sichuan cuisine and Hunan cuisine throughout the country has enabled more and more people to eat spicy food.
The soul of snail powder is sour bamboo shoots. The “acid” and “smell” of snail powder mainly come from it. Sour bamboo shoots are fermented from fresh bamboo shoots. In the process of fermentation, macromolecular substances such as protein and starch in bamboo shoots are decomposed into small molecules such as amino acids, organic acids, aldehydes and alcohols. The final product contains substances with strong odor such as hydrogen sulfide. When cooking snail powder, the combination of hot and spicy makes all kinds of odor substances volatilize faster, and the smell is more intense and pungent. The fresh flavor mainly comes from the soup made of fresh snail and pig bone or cow bone.
The stinky smell of snail powder smells like “biochemical weapons”. People who hate it often write resistance on their face before eating it, but they can’t stop after the first and second bites. Whether it is a star in a variety show or an ordinary consumer, the “true fragrance law” of snail powder is very dramatic and has its own topic heat.
The second is to pave the way for the content of mass culture.
In fact, as early as before Li Ziqi sent the snail powder video on August 6, 2019, on the consumer side, since 2011, the snail powder has been fully exposed in documentaries and TV programs with national influence, such as “Kangxi is coming”, “China on the tip of the tongue 1”, “travel all over China” and “every day up”, with its sour, spicy, fresh and refreshing characteristics and intangible cultural heritage status, which has laid the initial public awareness of the local cuisine. After Li Ziqi’s recommendation, snail powder began to accelerate the breaking of the circle, and completed the second stage of public cognition through variety show + star trial.
At present, well-known stars and anchors who have tried or recommended in various variety shows and live broadcasting rooms include but are far from limited to: Wang Yibo, Zhao Liying, Na Ying, Cecilia Cheung, Jing Tian, Deng Chao, Chen he, Lu Han, Li Chen, Wang ou, song Yuqi, Li Jiaqi, Weiya, etc. Among them, there are many top artists of all generations, who have played an important role in promoting the cognition of snail powder among men, women, old and young in China.
Third, the irregular sealing and control under the epidemic situation has made the convenience food with heavy taste and storage resistance popular.
The hatred of monotony and the pursuit of adventure and stimulation in human nature are also reflected incisively and vividly in food. When the epidemic is sealed, it is difficult to buy hot, sour, salty oil and other heavy flavor foods immediately if you want to buy them. Storage resistant bagged snail powder not only integrates these tastes, but also has rich ingredients. Common ingredients include sour bamboo shoots, sour beans, peanuts, fried bean curd, black fungus, dried radish, balsamic vinegar and chili oil.
With the large-scale industrialization since the 1980s, modern rice noodles took the lead in becoming popular among many workers. The historical background, convenience, fast sugar rising and other characteristics of rice noodles lead many people to eat rice noodles only when they “make do with a meal”. People feel a little “miserable” under the seal, but the rich ingredients of snail powder will make people feel a little less miserable.
With the continuous development of the food industry, bagged or canned food can achieve a long shelf life with little or no preservatives, and can be used as long-term grain reserves. At present, the shelf life of most bagged snail powder brands on the market is generally more than 6 months.
Fourth, it has the characteristics of cultural symbols and industrial poverty alleviation, which has been greatly promoted by the official media.
Snail powder handmade skills were selected into the provincial and national intangible cultural heritage lists in 2008 and 2021 respectively.
In terms of promoting employment and income growth, according to the report of Xinhua Daily Telegraph, the central newspaper of Xinhua news agency, on August 17, 2020, at that time, Liuzhou snail powder industry had created more than 250000 jobs, driving the development of 500000 Mu snail powder raw material base including rice, bamboo shoots, beans and agaric, as well as the industrial chain covering agriculture, food industry, e-commerce and other fields, It brings a total sales revenue of more than 10 billion yuan every year, helping more than 200000 rural people increase their per capita income by nearly 10000 yuan.
2020 is a very special year. It is not only an epidemic, but also the last year for China to overcome poverty. From the central media to local media, poverty alleviation is the hottest topic of coverage. The cultural attribute of snail powder, coupled with its contribution to farmers’ poverty alleviation, makes it frequently appear in large and small official media reports and public praise of ministerial government departments. From the news broadcast of CCTV1 to cctv17 agricultural channel, from TV special topics to newspaper special issues, from Xinhua news agency to people’s daily, snail powder has been on the Internet for many times.
In this context, people’s daily new media and Li Ziqi have jointly sold snail powder, which has been on-line since May 13, 2020. There is only one place where people’s daily can make delicious food in 2020.
With the above preliminary foreshadowing, after the epidemic returns to work and production in 2020, the live broadcasters and stores of various e-commerce platforms can bring up the sales volume, and the snail powder itself is delicious enough and ensures enough re purchase, which makes the snail powder a hot currency in today’s sealed control community.
Supply side of snail powder: promoting industrial upgrading with industrial concept
For consumer goods, there is only demand, and it is useless if the production capacity can not keep up. China’s demand for new energy vehicles is so large that the delivery is delayed one after another. Don’t manufacturers want to make money? Of course not. The core is that the production capacity can not keep up. In China, the construction of production capacity can not be quickly completed only by the natural response of the market. The driving force behind it is mostly the local government. From the decision to promote the development of snail powder industry in 2010 to the small-scale fire in 2016 and the real national fire in 2020, the way of snail powder out of the circle can be described as rapid, which is related to Liuzhou’s deep industrial foundation and industrial transformation experience.
Before snails became pink all over the country, Liuzhou was a vague southwest city for most Chinese.
Even if it is one of China’s seven major auto cities and one seventh of the country’s new energy vehicles were produced here last year, the headquarters of SAIC GM Wuling, the founder of domestic shenche “Wuling Hongguang”, is also here; Even though it was once an important industrial town in Southwest China and now contributes 1 / 4 of the total industrial output value to Guangxi, it has produced well-known Shuangma electric fans and dule refrigerators in southwest provinces. Now it also has nationally famous LMZ toothpaste, golden throat treasure, etc; Even though it has produced many celebrities in the literary and sports business circles, entrepreneurs Wang Shi, gymnastics Prince Li Ning, basketball player Zhu Fangyu and singer Wei Wei are all from Liuzhou.
In August 2020, Jia Jiangong, then deputy director of Liuzhou Municipal Bureau of Commerce, said in an interview with Xinhua: “although Liuzhou produces one of every 10 cars sold in China, these products do not carry the name of ‘Liuzhou’, and Liuzhou has not been well-known for a long time.” “According to the development experience of many cities, ‘City + food’ can often form a business card with great influence, such as Chongqing hot-pot/" 22375 rel="nofollow" target="_self">hot pot, Wuhan hot and dry noodles, Lanzhou beef noodles, etc.”
It is against this background that the snail powder, which was just selected into the second batch of intangible cultural heritage list in Guangxi in 2008, entered the sight of Liuzhou municipal government. Liuzhou proposed to make the characteristic food snail powder into a city business card in 2010. With the help of the visible hand of the government, Liuzhou snail powder began to develop rapidly:
In 2011, it imitated the snack mode of Shaxian County and opened a shop in Beijing. Under the guidance of relevant departments, some entrepreneurs went north to Beijing and opened more than 10 Liuzhou snail powder stores in densely populated places such as Haidian and Chaoyang. At that time, in order to ensure the authentic Liuzhou flavor of snail powder, many ingredients could only be airlifted from Liuzhou to Beijing, which greatly increased the operating cost of powder stores. Coupled with the high rent, many powder stores closed down one after another shortly after opening, and the mode of reopening Shaxian snacks was gradually abandoned.
In 2014, driven by market demand, bagged snail powder products appeared. At that time, when the tide of mobile Internet surged, under the promotion of demand and policy guidance, the sales volume of bagged snail powder rose rapidly through the increasingly developed e-commerce and logistics, and relevant enterprises also experienced from barbarism to formality.
In 2014, it was still difficult to see the shadow of snail powder in other provinces, and there were many migrant workers in Liuzhou. Someone asked, can you pack snail powder out of Liuzhou? When there is market demand, enterprises will develop products, so many small workshops producing bagged snail powder have sprung up. In 2014 alone, there were more than 40 so-called brands.
Luo Jinbo, a partner of Zhongliu company, a production enterprise of Liuzhou snail powder, recalled that the bagged snail powder at that time was almost produced by small workshops. “Rent a house, close the door and stir fry in it. Some packaging is made of plastic bags and bottles, with a shelf life of no more than 10 days.” Luo Jinbo said that in some small workshops, the boss almost fought with his neighbors because of the strong taste of fried sour bamboo shoots; Others were seized by law enforcement departments because of health problems.
“Some workshop owners with long-term development awareness want to apply for certificate production.” Luo Jinbo said, but there was no snail powder production standard at that time. “We couldn’t get the certificate. We still did it behind closed doors, and the government department was also a headache.” Liuzhou municipal government decided to adopt the guiding idea of “releasing water to raise fish” for snail powder producers – not only to meet people’s new consumption needs and guide these producers to standardization, but also not to control them.
Since the end of 2014, when the factory area reaches 300 square meters, the food and Drug Administration will handle the certificate. When problems were found in 2014, a new deal could be launched to solve them that year. The efficiency of Liuzhou can be regarded as an example. Subsequently, Liuzhou snail powder industry soon prospered, and the number of relevant enterprises increased to more than 80. In this process, Liuzhou has continuously formulated industry norms and raised the entry threshold. Small workshops with insufficient qualifications have been gradually eliminated, and the era of savage growth of bagged snail powder has ended.
At the beginning of 2015, Liuzhou held a snail powder industry development conference, which put forward the development concept of “industrialization, standardization, branding and scale” of Liuzhou snail powder for the first time, and determined that Liuzhou snail powder industry should take the road of mechanized production. Since then, Liuzhou has successively issued a series of standards and development plans for snail powder production, such as the local standard for prepackaged Liuzhou snail powder, the implementation plan for the upgrading and development of Liuzhou snail powder industry, and several policies and measures for comprehensively promoting the upgrading and development of Liuzhou snail powder industry, which are still being improved in recent years.
At the press conference of Guangxi delegation to the national two sessions in 2016, Zheng Junkang, Secretary of Liuzhou municipal Party committee, told the story of Liuzhou’s compliance with the market and promoting the rapid development of snail powder industrialization. From the perspective of the hot sale of local snacks from “cooked Hall Food” to “bagged fast food”, he told the effectiveness of Liuzhou’s supply side reform, which attracted the attention of many media.
In 2020, the epidemic accelerated the breaking of the circle of snail powder. Snail powder has been hot searched on Weibo for more than 10 times. The whole network urged goods and sales soared. The daily sales volume soared from about 1.5 million bags before the epidemic to 3 million bags. At this time, it is precisely because the snail powder industry in Liuzhou has a certain scale and foundation after years of cultivation that it finally undertook the blowout on the demand side and let it seize the opportunity of the times.
Industrial foundation + Internet + poverty alleviation + epidemic situation, I have to say that snail powder is really the son of heaven and the choice of the times. Different from the snail powder’s big luck, the scale of Shaxian snack is an inspirational story of the final counter attack of mud legs with a rotten card.
Shaxian snack is headquartered in Shaxian District, Sanming City, Fujian Province. Sanming is close to the provincial capital Fuzhou and Xiamen, a strong city in the province. The high-speed railway is within an hour and a half. As reported by Sanming daily, as of March 2021, Shaxian snacks had more than 88000 stores across the country, with an annual turnover of more than 50 billion yuan. More than 60000 people went out to operate snacks in the county, and more than 300000 jobs were driven by radiation. Over the years, Shaxian snacks have changed from “grounded” to “more foreign”. Today, joint venture subsidiaries of Shaxian snack group have been established in the United States, Japan, France and other countries, with stores in 62 countries, and 17 chain standard stores have been developed in 8 of them.
Although Shaxian snack is a big giant of China’s fast food brand today, it was nothing to start with, and there were many ups and downs in the middle.
Shaxian snacks in the form of modern small restaurants began to develop in the late 1980s. Different from the industrial foundation and fiscal revenue accumulated for decades when Liuzhou, an important industrial town, began to promote the development of snail powder industry in 2011, Shaxian was poor and white in that year. It was a wealth code that local people were forced to go out to make a living when agriculture and industry could not go through.
Sha county is located in a mountainous area with few cultivated land. It can not develop intensive modern agriculture, and the road of industry is also quite bumpy. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the development experience of township enterprises in southern Jiangsu became the object of national imitation. The industrial foundation of Shaxian County is relatively weak, and the countryside lacks strong collective economic accumulation in southern Jiangsu, there are no large industrial cities with strong driving ability around, and the township enterprises that have made great efforts to support are lack of competitiveness. In 1997, there was a tide of closures and layoffs, and the employment problem of Shaxian County has become intractable again.
The lack of resources and the pressure of employment forced some people in Shaxian County to go to other places to make a living as early as the late 1980s. Some farmers who are good at making snacks in Shaxian began to set up stalls in some cities around Shaxian to make money. At that time, Shaxian snacks, which were in the period of spontaneous growth, were still very limited in scale and radiation, and did not enter the sight of the local government.
In 1992, a large area of private financial products (known locally as “standard meeting”, similar to usury) prevailed in Shaxian County. At that time, about 60% of families in the county participated in all kinds of private standard meetings, and the rural participation rate was as high as about 85%. A large number of people who owed debts due to the collapse of the standard meeting ran away. Most of these Jedi did not have any skills to survive. They began to make and operate snacks under the guidance of their fellow villagers.
Shaxian snack owners who went out during this period coincided with the period of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the southeast coast. A large number of labor force poured into cities from rural areas all over the country. Shaxian snacks with low price and a wide variety just met the love of low-income people with fast pace of life and work. After some profitable snack bar owners stood firm, they not only returned home to repay their debts, but also built fashionable big houses. After being seen by their fellow villagers, more and more people in Shaxian County began to go out to open snack bars through the help of their relatives and friends.
In the mid-1990s, Sha county government was worrying about the three rural issues in Sha county. In the frequent investigation into the village, Liu Daoqi, then head of Shaxian County, keenly captured some changes in Shaxian township. After initial research, Sha county officials found that this change depends on the income generated by the humble snack industry. On May 1, 1997, Sha county officials spent a week visiting Sha county snack bars in Fuzhou, Xiamen, Quanzhou and other places to investigate the situation, and finally decided to support the snack industry. On May 13, 1997, Shaxian County held a special meeting on the development of snack industry, which formed the opinions of Shaxian County People’s Government on promoting the development of snack industry in Shaxian County. After the meeting, all levels of Shaxian County mobilized to vigorously support the development of snack industry.
In order to strengthen the implementation of the policy, all towns and townships have appointed full-time personnel to pay attention to the development of snacks. The development of snack industry has been included in the assessment objectives of civilization construction at the county and township levels, and implemented through various inspection, evaluation, reward and punishment measures. At the same time, the reform of government departments should also be implemented at the industrial level.
In 1997, Shaxian snack industry development leading group was established. Except that the first group leader is the Minister of United Front work, since 1998, the Secretary of the county Party committee or the county head has been the group leader of the group. The county Party committee, the county government, the commissions and bureaus, and the main towns and townships need to send main leaders to participate in the work of the group.
The core reason why Shaxian government can do this snack industry is that it has helped Shaxian government at all levels, from county head, county Party Secretary to township cadres, and mobilized them through system reform and institutional reform.
In order to improve the production and service level and standardize the industry order, in July 1997, Shaxian County established the “Shaxian snack trade association” as a community organization for the management of Shaxian snack industry. Two years later, Shaxian snack industry development center was established, which is responsible for personnel training, technical consultation, guidance service, skill competition, outdoor exhibition, etc. engaged in Shaxian snack industry.
In order to expand and manage the team of going out for business, the county Party committee and government even allow government cadres to retain their wages and positions, leave their posts for two years and go out to operate Shaxian snacks. An important task of these cadres is to assume the responsibility of coordinating and managing the snack owners in Shaxian County, the city where they are located. With the encouragement of this policy, the number of people who go out to operate snacks in villages and towns has more than doubled in two years. Efficient mobilization and strong incentives have become an important driving force for the scale of the industry in this period.
In view of the lack of unified standards for the production process of snacks in Sha county, the county government provides free skill training for farmers who go out to operate snacks by integrating relevant financial subsidies. From 1998 to 2016, the snack training center held 496 classes and trained 21203 people. These trainings promoted the transformation of Shaxian snack owners from “guerrillas” to “regular army”.
In terms of financial support, the local government came forward to coordinate financial institutions to provide loans to snack owners, and adopted a series of measures such as civil servant guarantee, snack owners’ joint guarantee, financial discount and so on. Shaxian rural commercial bank even set up Shaxian snack sub branch specifically to support snack owners in other places, sending personnel to the areas where snack owners gather to handle loans and other financial services for operators.
This series of intensive institutional changes and resource investment made 1997 the first important watershed in the history of Shaxian snack development.
2008 is the second important watershed in the development of snacks in Sha county. In order to cope with fierce horizontal competition and sustainable development, Shaxian snack industry association began to strengthen industry self-discipline management: in 2008, the Association launched the rules and regulations of Shaxian snack industry to regulate the business activities of its members. Standardized production technology is the key to ensuring product quality. In that year, the trade association also hired industry experts to formulate corresponding standards for the main single products of Shaxian snacks. These standards were further upgraded to local standards of Fujian Province in 2016 and officially released to the whole country.
From then to now, Shaxian snack has been trying to keep up with the pace of the times and consolidate and enhance its competitiveness.
For example, at the end of 2014, Shaxian snack group (100% controlled by Shaxian government, which is actually a “state-owned enterprise”) was restructured and successively set up subsidiaries of group chain companies in various places to implement joint-stock corporate operation. From 2014 to 2016, it successively opened strategic cooperation with Zhengda, COFCO and chick Eagle agriculture and animal husbandry (the first share of pig raising in China), and wanted to cooperate with private capital to seek listing and promote the development of Shaxian snacks in the direction of standardization, chain and industrialization. However, because the interests of investors and snack owners have been unreasonable, the road of capitalization has been shelved indefinitely. At present, we are exploring two directions: one is to encourage private capital to explore and innovate by itself, and the other is to develop nearly 3000 Shaxian snack chain standard stores through chain subsidiaries since 2016. We hope to show small owners the huge benefits that can be released by industrial upgrading through these stores and attract more shopkeepers to join the process of Shaxian snack quality upgrading.
Under the tide of Internet +, although Shaxian snacks started late, they are still trying to catch up. Since 2019, Shaxian County has set up a 20 million yuan Shaxian snack industry development fund to carry out the digital construction of snacks and guide the return of people, capital and data flow. At present, the digital economy pilot has been carried out in six cities such as Beijing, and the data of more than 1600 stores have returned to Shaxian headquarters. The analysis and mining of these data and the subsequent promotion in more stores will provide favorable help for snack owners to reduce procurement costs and improve business efficiency.
After studying the development of Shaxian snacks, I think it is full of three words: don’t admit your fate.
I am very moved that people in Shaxian County, one after another, have not been lying on the credit book of their predecessors and have been seeking innovation and change, trying to keep up with the pace of the times. From a bad brand at the beginning, to the fast food brand with the largest number of stores in China, and now struggling to change and catch up in the face of new technology and new competition, what changes is time, and what remains unchanged is the hard work and spirit of the local people.
And it seems that Liuzhou snail powder, which seems to have been selected by the times, was not put together by the local people with all their strength?
Think about Liuzhou City carefully. What good cards does it have? It is neither the provincial capital nor the lack of policies and sufficient resources. Guangxi itself is not an economically strong province. As the core railway hub in Southwest China, with the relocation of Railway Bureau and the construction of high-speed railway, Liuzhou’s transportation hub advantage is also giving way to other southwest cities. Not to mention, with the rise of eastern coastal industries and China’s integration into the wave of globalization, those traditional heavy industries that were once brilliant for a time have repeatedly become a thorny problem in Liuzhou’s economic transformation.
The cards are so bad, why don’t you lie flat? If Liuzhou people think so, they will not become the only Auto City in China today that is neither a municipality directly under the central government nor the provincial capital. Liuzhou people didn’t believe in life after all. They just sold a large number of shares in exchange for the landing of many joint venture automobile enterprises, and earned today’s truly national automobile city. They also rely on long-term planning and practical work to gradually get rid of the single industry dependence on the automobile industry and spell out another booming snail powder industry.
Snail powder and Shaxian snacks are actually against the trend of those who do not believe in life. Their struggle history is not the struggle history of everyone in this country and this land?
At present, we are going through an unprecedented complex history, and we will not face much less difficulties than our predecessors. No matter how many emotions you have experienced in this spring, in the end, please don’t give up hope and don’t let the spirit be blown away by the wind.
Spring flowers fade easily, but they will bloom again in the end.
2. “Annual sales of 50 billion yuan is a social benefit” former executive vice president of Shaxian snack Trade Association: the group does not meet the listing conditions for the time being, daily economic news, 2021.5
3. Why does snail powder stink? It’s because of it, surging news, April 2021
4. Shaxian snacks, a 50 billion yuan industry, Sanming daily, March 2021
5. Shaxian snacks, the most underestimated “state-owned enterprise”, Chuangye bang, December 2020
6. Snail powder, a “late bloomer”, reflects the resilience of China’s economy, Xinhua Daily Telegraph, August 2020
7. Gathering sand into gold: industrial policy practice behind “Shaxian snack”, Guanghua School of management, Peking University, may 2020
8. The most beautiful industrial city – Liuzhou, pawn, may 2018
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