This article is reprinted from the Food Research Institute, id:food_ Lab。
Have you seen the recently popular “Meng Hua Lu”? To tell the truth, as a graduate of the tea subject class, I can’t infer from the details of the eighth episode which emperor was in power. Until the appearance of Yan Shu in Episode 9… However, I have to say that the crew has paid attention to the details! Not to mention the tea products mentioned in the play all have their own tea, and they are really the tea that can be drunk in the Song Dynasty. The tea set and tea art basically followed the characteristics of the Song Dynasty.
/Ancient Chinese version of “La Hua”/
First, let’s talk about a wonderful performance by Zhao Pan’er in Episode 1 of “Meng Hua Lu” – a hundred tea operas.
A hundred tea operas – Meng Hua Lu
It is said in the barrage that it is “the earliest coffee flower”.
The bullet screen is called “the dream of China”
In fact, tea operas come from ordering tea. Compared with ordering tea that is suitable for drinking, the tea soup used in the tea drama is thicker and not suitable for drinking. It is only suitable for viewing. On the foam from the thick tea soup, special utensils are dipped in water to paint, so it is also called “water painting”, which is similar to the principle of five colors of ink in traditional Chinese painting. The creation of water painting requires not only painting skills, but also the basic skills of tea, because only by making more dense and lasting foam can we have time to paint and enjoy.
What kind of tea was there in the Song Dynasty?
/There’s everything in the TV series/
- Official mainstream – Beiyuan tribute tea
The most popular tea in the Northern Song Dynasty was Beiyuan Guanbao (tribute tea) produced in Jianzhou (now Jianou, Fujian). This is a kind of steamed green tight pressed group tea originated from the Tang Dynasty Fuzhou research paste tea technology. In the Song Dynasty, it experienced two important technological reforms, Dingwei and Caixiang. Su Shi’s poem said: “the millet sprouts by the Wuyi River are favored by the former Ding and the latter CAI.”
Guqianfan said in Episode 1 that “the reason why Longfeng tea is called Longfeng tea is that it contains dragon brain fragrance.” It is true that dragon brain fragrance is found in tribute tea of Song Dynasty, but it is only in tribute tea. Even if ordinary people (tea farmers) can drink Beiyuan Tuan tea, they do not add dragon brain. Caixiang wrote to song Renzong in his tea record: “tea has a real fragrance, and those who pay tribute use a little dragon brain and cream to help it. The people in Jian’an do not try tea, and they are afraid to take away the truth.” However, Beiyuan tribute tea is also called Dragon and Phoenix Group tea, not because it adds dragon brain fragrance, but because the mold for pressing group tea is carved with dragon and phoenix patterns, and the pressed tea also has dragon and phoenix patterns. Hence the name dragon and Phoenix Group tea or dragon tea.
Fujian Provincial Museum – shooting purple bamboo shoots
However, although the dragon and Phoenix Group tea made by Beiyuan Guanbao is top-grade, it is not easy for ordinary people to drink. Even the official family must be given by the emperor to share some.
- Blue Phoenix pith
In the first episode, Gu Qianfan ordered the green phoenix pith tea, which is produced in Jian’an and one of Beiyuan tea. It belongs to steamed green pressed tea. In a dream of Red Mansions, it is said that “the ancient Dingxin cooked Phoenix pith incense, and the golden bronze vessel stored Qiongjiang” is this kind of tea. Even though the novel a dream of Red Mansions was written in the Qing Dynasty, the Phoenix pith is extremely ancient and elegant.
“Meng Hua Lu” by the characters in the play
- Local characteristics favored by scholars — Shuangjing Baiya tea
Folk Tea is called grass tea, which is more likely to be non suppressed loose tea. Shuangjing tea, produced in Xiushui County, Jiangxi Province, is one of the best herbal teas. Ouyangxiu believes that the Shuangjing white bud of “ten jin of tea raises oneortwo buds” is the best of grass tea. Huang Tingjian, Sima Guang, Su Shi, yangwanli, MeiYaoChen and others also wrote poems in praise of Shuangjing tea for many times.
In addition to Shuangjing tea, Zhejiang rizhu (note) tea is also a famous product in herbal tea, menghualu
- Lingyin Buddha tea
Buddhism has been associated with tea since it was introduced into the Central Plains. In addition to tea breaking sleep, most temples in the south are also suitable for the growth of tea trees. Tea planting, tea making and tea serving are often regarded as Buddhist practices. Buddhist tea refers to the tea planted and produced by the monks themselves. It is mostly used to worship the Buddha, drink by the monks themselves and entertain pilgrims. Tang Luyu recorded in the book of tea that “Tianzhu temple and Lingyin Temple were born in Qiantang”. Lingyin Buddha tea is believed to have originated in the Tang Dynasty and flourished in the Southern Song Dynasty. The plot was set in the Northern Song Dynasty, and the output was not high. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Lingyin Buddha tea and Putuo Buddha tea, another famous Buddha tea in Zhejiang Province, went hand in hand. They were collectively called “Zhejiang Buddha tea” and listed as tribute tea.
Filmed by wangxinping
The current Lingyin Buddha tea is the West Lake Longjing tea, but the history of Lingyin Buddha tea is far earlier than the creation of Longjing tea. Lingyinfo tea in the Northern Song Dynasty is more likely to be a kind of steamed green grass tea.
How to drink tea in Song Dynasty?
/Fried and ready to order/
- Mainstream – order tea
The hostess zhaopan’er not only opened a teahouse in the play, but also was a master of tea. The most popular way to drink tea in the Song Dynasty was to grind and grind the tea. It was better to sift out the fine powder with a sieve, and then put the tea powder into the hot-pot/" 22375 rel="nofollow" target="_self">hot pot. First, add a little water to make it into a paste, and then add water to whisk it out into a uniform and delicate foam. This is called ordering tea. A good tea can be directly drunk by one person, or it can be shared in a small cup with a small spoon like in the play.
Order good tea and ladle it into a small cup to share the dream of China
Matcha Dao in Japan originated from the late tea of Song Dynasty. This method first became popular among Fujian people, so Episode 6 Zhao Pan’er’s first visit to Tokyo (that is, Kaifeng, Henan Province) and seeing that the teahouses there are still using the method of frying tea is very disgusting. Ouyangxu, who went to have tea with him, explained that the north and South flavors are very different. Let Pan’er also taste Tokyo tea. I don’t know how zhaopan’er can tell that the tea used by Dr. tea (the person responsible for frying and ordering tea in the tea house in the Tang and Song dynasties) is Shuangjing Baiya, but what she shows next is the ordering tea advocated in the Song Dynasty.
- Ancient flavor – fried tea
Fried tea was not despised in the Song Dynasty because it was out of date. On the contrary, many scholars thought that this drinking method in the former dynasty was very ancient. Fried means boiled. In the Song Dynasty, when cooking tea, you only fry water instead of tea, that is, you use boiled water to make tea powder, so it is called tea. In the Tang Dynasty, the ground tea was boiled in boiling water, so it was called fried tea. Before Lu Yu wrote the book of tea, people would put some green onions, ginger, cornel and so on when frying tea, which could play a role in dispersing and eliminating miasma. But Luyu thinks that the tea with too much seasoning is simply waste water in the ditch, which can’t be drunk. Fried tea can be seasoned with a little salt. Hunan’s Ginger salt bean tea also retains this ancient way of drinking tea, which is especially suitable for people living in mountainous areas.
The TV series is making fried tea, the record of Meng Hua
In the Tang Dynasty, the teapot was usually made of Yao Zi or the utensils called “Chu” in the tea classic, rather than cast iron pots. There is no flow, but there is a short flow, both of which are open. The materials are silver, porcelain and pottery. Zhaopan’er said, “it’s better to use silver for the Yao Zi. The iron ware will have a raw taste.” It was really recognized by people in the Song Dynasty. However, people in the Song Dynasty ordered tea in soup jars rather than in Yao Zi, that is, the kind Zhao Pan’er used to make perilla drinks.
This set of tools is copied from the Song Dynasty tea ordering. The first on the left is the soup bottle used to heat hot water and pour hot water on the tea powder to shoot purple bamboo shoots
Tea art in Song Dynasty
/Whether tea tastes good depends on people/
Episode 6 Zhao Pan’er says that the tea houses in Tokyo are so beautiful, but the tea art is not very good. This sentence is also right today. With a good-looking appearance, the tea expert is the soul of it. The choice of utensils and brewing techniques will affect the tea drinking experience.
- Jinfacao – tea mill
In Episode 1, Zhao Pan’er has to prepare tea again. The first step is to grind the tea. The shape and structure of the tea mill is the same as that of the medicine mill, but it is much more exquisite. Silver is the best material, followed by wrought iron. In the Song Dynasty, the color of tea was white. The effect of white color could be achieved only by grinding the tea. The color would be dim after a long time.
Grinding tea – Meng Hua Lu
- Assistant teacher Zhu – tea
You can use two kinds of utensils to order tea and whisk it. Caixiang, a famous tea man of the same age as Renzong in the play, told Renzong that the spoon used for whisking should be heavier to be powerful. Gold is the best choice. Most people use silver and iron. Bamboo is too light. It is not necessary to make Jiancha.
The bamboo tea used by Zhao Pan’er in the play is a way of brushing in the Huizong period. The flat tea is carefully used here instead of the common Japanese round tea. In the Grand View of tea, Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty said that tea should be made of old bamboo, the hand-held part should be thick, and the part used for brushing should be weak, so that it can be operated effectively and easy to use. However, Tokyo, which still uses the method of frying tea, has made great efforts to provide bamboo tea.
The hand of this tea is flat, which is very similar to the record of Dream China
However, there are some auxiliary tea utensils in modern shape on the table for making fried tea, which can be regarded as a small defect.
The other auxiliary tea utensils framed in the circle are basically of modern form – the record of Menghua
- Taobaowen – Jianzhan
In Episode 6, Zhao Pan’er sits down in the position of doctor tea, scoops out tea powder with bamboo tea and puts it into a black cup. This dark colored lamp is the Jian’an (now Jianyang, Fujian) one. “It is tawny white, and it should be black”. The tea brewed in the Song Dynasty was rich in foam. The whiter, finer and longer the foam, the better the tea and tea art. Dark tea lanterns can highlight the white color of tea, so under the prevalence of tea fighting in the Northern Song Dynasty, Jianzhan was also highly respected. Jianzhan, with a black background, is also of great ornamental value. Huizong said that “those who reach the jade pole are the best”. That is to say, Jianzhan has a silver white jade straight stripe pattern inside, which is the top grade. This is the “rabbit hair Cup”.
In front of zhaopan’er is Jianzhan’s dream of China
Although ordering tea can be shared, it is an important part of ordering tea to enjoy the white tea color among the blue and black background. It is more appropriate to order two cups of tea for two people. Of course, it is not too much for Zhao Pan’er to hope that “lovers” can share the same soup with their children.
Fragments of Jianzhan in Jianyang — shooting purple bamboo shoots in the collection of Fujian Museum
- Celadon lamp
Luyu thinks that Yue Kiln celadon bowls are very suitable for drinking tea, because Yue Kiln celadon is like jade and ice and can set off the green color of fried tea soup, while other colors of porcelain can not show the color of tea.
Celadon lanterns – records of dreamtime
In the Ming Dynasty, tea drinking developed into the method of direct brewing of loose tea, and pure white tea cups were welcomed. It is the different ways of drinking tea in different historical periods, and the suitable utensils are also different.
Ming Dehua kiln white glaze cup collection of Fujian Provincial Museum – shooting purple bamboo shoots
- Lacquer carving secret Pavilion – lamp holder
According to legend, the daughter of Cui Ning, a Shu minister in the Tang Dynasty, felt that the tea cup was too hot to handle without a support, and it was easy to pour when it was carried by a plate, so she made a ring in the middle of the plate with wax to fix the cup, so it became a support. In the Song Dynasty, most of the lamp holders were made of wood with large paint to cooperate with the construction of lamps. There are also many lamps of the same material as those in the play, such as porcelain, gold, silver, etc. Some people think that when looking at ancient paintings, we can judge whether the characters drink tea or wine by whether there is a support, because the wine is not so hot and does not need a support. But all the characters in the play just pick up the cup and drink tea. What’s the use of it?
The azure glaze of Ru kiln in the Northern Song Dynasty entrusted the collection of Henan Museum to shoot purple bamboo shoots
Now many film and television works are working harder and harder on the details. Although there are still some minor defects in the record of dreamchina, it still shows us a vivid picture of the ancient people’s life as a whole, and brings the public to know some traditional skills that are almost lost. In this regard, it is worth affirming.
 Dingfuchang Lingyin Buddha tea [j] Food and life, 1997 (06): 32
 Promising Unique Putuo Buddha tea [j] Health care for the elderly, 1997 (05): 41
 Xujinhua, yaodingying Buddha tea and Chinese tea culture [j] Agricultural Archaeology, 1995 (02): 185-190
 Chen rafter General history of tea industry (Second Edition), China Agricultural Press, 2008, Beijing
 Zhao Ji On Daguan tea
 Caixiang Tea records
 Lu Yu The book of tea
 Old man Shen’an “Tea set painting praise”
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