“ when drinking grape wine, did you ever think about the fate of grape dregs? ”
Text: Kelly Wang
Source: foodaily daily food (id:foodaily)
The shiny goblet shakes, the reddish brown liquid rolls in it, and the attractive color vaguely reveals its high value… In a large number of film and television works, wine is often an essential prop in order to show the superior identity of the characters. In real life, wine has also become a symbol of quality of life in the eyes of many people.According to scientific research, wine appeared between 7000 BC and 5000 BC. After thousands of years of brewing accumulation, the wine industry has long been quite large-scale. According to the data of the international wine import and export organization (OIV), the global wine production in 2021 was about 25billion liters, which was the result of the epidemic (about 7% lower than the average level in the past 20 years).When wine offers delicious food to global consumers, it also produces a large number of by-products – fruit residue. For most industries, the disposal of product waste is either “retained” or “discarded”. The former often has great social benefits but high requirements for technology and equipment, so most manufacturers will directly throw it away once and for all.However, in Canada, there is such a start-up company, which uses patented fermentation technology to turn grape residue waste into treasure, and obtained seed round financing of $3.6 million in April this year. Kirk Moir, CEO of the company, once told the outside world that the long-term goal of the company is to find a suitable destination for the 15million tons of wine making by-products produced every year around the world.Such a bold vision of the company can’t help but impress us. How did they find this “jade” in the garbage that no one cared about? What technology is used to “carve” it into high-value functional ingredients? What are the ways to reuse fruit residues? And how does the glittering fruit dregs become a sustainable pioneer?
Curiosity generates inspiration, and finds business opportunities from the “delicious food” of bears
The founding story of crush dynamics originated from a “crush” with bears.In 2016, bill broddy, the founder and president who was learning to make sour bread at that time, was walking around a brewery by bike and accidentally found a bear eating grape pomace. Instead of eating good meat, it is the mixture of grape seeds and grape skins discarded by the winery in the process of brewing that makes it eat it. So curiosity drove him to ask Gary Strachan, a Canadian wine advocate and consultant (now the chief scientist of crush dynamics), why does this bear eat waste fruit residue Strachan responded that the fruit residue looks like waste, but it is actually very nutritious. Before hibernation begins, such bears are very good at finding eugenicsBased on the large number of planting and processing of grapes, the yield of grape dregs is large but the recovery rate is low. Most of them are only used as fertilizer or directly treated as garbage. Improper operation will cause more serious environmental pollution. In fact, grape pomace (from grape skin to seed) is rich in phenols, amino acids and other active substances. It is an excellent functional food raw material, and it is also a natural bitterness blocker, freshness agent and preservative.At present, the research on the comprehensive utilization of grape dregs is concentrated in large wine producing countries (Europe and America), and the application fields of grape dregs are all over food, medical treatment, chemical industry and feed. In China, due to the problems of development technology and regulations, grape pomace is mostly used in low-end ways such as feed production.If you want to “turn waste into treasure” from grape pomace, you must first clarify the reason why it becomes waste. Grape seeds and skins contain a natural ingredient – tannin, which will bring a slightly bitter taste to red wine; And with tannins are phenols and proteins, whose functionality cannot be replaced by “others”. To make efficient use of grape pomace, crushdynamics adheres to the principle of “removing and retaining”: the original fermentation process can not only remove the natural bitterness of fruit pomace, but also perfectly retain polyphenols and proteins. It can play the functions of flavor enhancement, bitterness blocking, color enhancement and prolonging the quality assurance period, which helps to maintain the stability of blood glucose in the human body and promote the health of circulation, heart and immune system. Most importantly, this process can also reduce the production cost by 90%. According to the official website, this technology is being patented.Image source: www.grandesvinos.comAt present, crushdynamics has developed two series of products: Ruby pur é E and gold pur é e. the difference between them lies in the ingredient color and grape variety – the former can be compatible with darker color formulas (such as beef analogues, sauces and desserts), and the latter can be mixed with light color formulas (such as vegetable dairy substitutes and chicken analogues). Just like using different varieties of grapes to make different flavors of wine, food producers can use them for color matching; It can also act as a natural preservative to preserve the freshness of food. Therefore, it will be the best choice for sausage, “wine crispy”, cheese, mustard and other foods.Image source: crushdynamics official websiteCrushdynamics has reached cooperation with a number of plant meat and plant-based cheese companies. According to Kirk Moir, CEO of the company, due to the very good combination of polyphenols in fruit puree and pea protein, the company is currently carrying out new projects with Canadian protein industry company to improve the quality of some plant-based cheese produced in this country; At the same time, any food manufacturer seeking low sodium ingredients can also benefit from the unique flavor and functional characteristics of this ingredient.In addition to excellent efficacy, the production cost of this series of products is also very low. This ingredient is cheaper than the bitterness blockers, fresheners, or preservatives of most other cleaning labels today
Cashew pulp is rich in fat, fiber, minerals, protein, tannin and vitamin C, which can fight inflammation, protect brain health and maintain healthy blood glucose levels, enhance the physical fitness of middle-aged and elderly people and reduce oxidative stress response. In addition, cashew pulp does not require any additional water or land to produce, and is one of the sustainable plant meat options. This product not only achieves health, vegan, organic and sustainable, but also achieves zero food waste, which can be described as economic and social benefits.
In addition to being used as food raw materials, fruit residues can also become the “soil” for the synthesis of high value-added food ingredients.Last winter, researchers at the German Institute of food chemistry and food biotechnology developed a natural source of wild strawberry flavor by using edible fungi in the by-product of blackcurrant juice.Source: trip.pref.kanagawa.jpSome fungi are good at converting plant materials into pleasant odor compounds, including vanillin, raspberry ketone and benzaldehyde (an almond like odor). The special edible brown rot fungus (Wolfiporia cocos) found this time will release fruit and flower fragrance in the process of decomposing food such as tea and carrot peel. At first, researchers used cassis pomace to plant brown rot fungi as the only nutritional source of fungi to produce fruit and flower fragrance; Later, when the research team added ammonium nitrate, sodium L-aspartate monohydrate and other substances to the culture medium, the culture successively released a fragrance similar to wild strawberry, which became an unexpected surprise.As the saying goes, “rare things are precious”. Wild strawberries are “invaluable” because of their rich aroma and unique sweetness. They are mainly synthetic products sold on the market. Once the industrialized wild strawberry aroma preparation method can be stabilized, it will have an important impact on the market in this field. Therefore, people can’t help thinking: what “rare ingredients” can be obtained from fruit residue fermentation?Compared with the fermentation with complex mechanism and difficult to accurately control, it is more intuitive to make fruit residue into environmental friendly packaging materials.Image source: www.nipponexpress.comEarlier this year, the Swiss Federal Laboratory for materials science and Technology (EMPA) and local retailer lidl jointly developed an ecological nanofiber film coating for banana packaging. The coating takes the solid residue (fruit residue) left after extracting fruit juice from fruits, vegetables or plants as the raw material, which is processed into fibrillated cellulose and sprayed on the product to avoid the use of plastic components and ensure a longer shelf life, while consumers only need to wash it off with water before eating.Summary China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are the second largest industry in the domestic planting industry after grain. At the beginning of 2022, foodaily released the top ten business hotspots of the year, and regarded the rapid progress of fruits and vegetables from traditional agricultural form to commercial market as a hot trend worthy of high attention at present. In the process of “fruit and vegetable explosion”, functionalization, scenarioization, cross category morphology, modern preservation and processing technology,How can you become a sustainable pioneer with glittering fruit dregs?CrushDynamics 目前仅有一家自有工厂。Moir 表示：公司正计划向更广阔的酿酒领域扩张——与加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省的数十家具有可持续发展意识的酿酒厂合作。在接下来的 5-10 年内，CrushDynamics 还希望将业务范围拓展到全世界大部分的葡萄酒生产地区，“用葡萄渣改造世界”的雄心可见一斑。
葡萄渣主要包含葡萄皮渣（占残渣38%-52%）及葡萄籽两部分，两者均含有多种丰富的有机物质，如酚类物质、芳香类物质、葡萄籽油及蛋白质等，具有抗炎抗癌、改善肠道菌群、预防血栓等多重功效。葡萄渣不仅是备受重视的“超级食品原料”，也能在医疗、化工、饲料、护肤美容等领域大放异彩。图片来源：CrushDynamics官网在葡萄渣中，利用率较高的当属葡萄籽油。每生产 300 加仑葡萄酒，大约可生产1加仑葡萄籽油。葡萄籽中富含低聚原花青素（OPC），抗氧化能力约为维生素 C 的 20 倍，维生素 E 的 50 倍。从葡萄籽中榨取的烹饪油富含omega-6不饱和脂肪酸，有助于改善心血管健康。鉴于这些特性，加拿大食品公司La Presserie在旗下的冷榨沙拉酱中加入葡萄籽油，依靠其强大的抗氧化能力为产品防腐保鲜，也为以果汁和糖浆为主的酱料体系赋予更加饱满的口感。La Presserie推出的果蔬基冷榨沙拉酱图片来源：lapresserie.ca强抗氧化力也让葡萄籽成为护肤佳品，可以通过对抗自由基来减缓衰老过程，抗菌、抗病毒和抗炎、促进眼睛健康、适合敏感肌肤。不仅葡萄废料“浑身是宝”，绝大多数水果渣都富含生物活性物质，可以用作保健食品原料，作为抗氧化剂延长食品货架期；部分果渣还因其纤维素含量极高，被用来制备可食用可降解的包装材料。去年11月，美国初创公司Cajú Love 推出了一款利用腰果废料制成的植物肉。图片来源：www.preparedfoods.com腰果肉富含脂肪、纤维、矿物质、蛋白质、单宁和维生素 C，可以对抗炎症、保护大脑健康并维持健康的血糖水平，能增强中老年人的身体素质并减少氧化应激反应。此外，腰果肉无需任何额外的水或土地来生产，是可持续的植物肉选择之一。这款产品在实现健康、纯素、有机和可持续的同时，还做到了零食物浪费，可谓是经济和社会效益双收。除了作为食物原料，果渣也可以成为合成高附加值食品配料的“土壤”。去年冬天，德国食品化学和食品生物技术研究所的研究人员利用黑加仑汁副产物中的食用菌，开发出一种天然来源的野草莓风味物质。图片来源：trip.pref.kanagawa.jp有些真菌擅长将植物材料转化为令人愉悦的气味化合物，包括香兰素、覆盆子酮和苯甲醛（一种类似杏仁的气味）。而此次发现的这种特殊的可食用褐腐菌（Wolfiporia cocos）在分解茶和胡萝卜皮等食物的过程中会释放出水果和花香。最初，研究人员利用黑醋栗果渣种植褐腐菌作为真菌的唯一营养来源，使其产生果香和花香；后来，当研究小组在培养基中加入硝酸铵、L-天冬氨酸钠一水合物等物质时，培养物又接连释放出一种类似于野草莓的香味，成为意外的惊喜。正所谓“物以稀为贵”。野草莓因其浓郁的香气和独特的甜味，因而“价值连城”，市场上售卖的主要为人工合成品。一旦工业化的野草莓香气制备方法能够稳定下来，则将对该领域市场产生重要影响。由此，人们也不禁想到：对果渣发酵，到底还能获得哪些“珍稀成分”？与机理复杂，不易精确控制的发酵相比，将果渣做成环保型包材，则更加直观可见。图片来源：www.nipponexpress.com今年年初，瑞士联邦材料科学与技术实验室 (EMPA) 和当地零售商 Lidl 联合开发出一种用于香蕉包装的生态纳米纤维薄膜涂层。该涂层以从水果、蔬菜或植物中提取果汁后留下的固体残留物（果渣）为原料，将其加工成原纤化纤维素后喷涂到产品上，以避免使用塑料成分并确保更长的保质期，而消费者在食用前只需用水洗掉即可。
中国是全球最大的果蔬生产国与消费国。果蔬是国内种植业中仅次于粮食的第二大产业。2022年初，Foodaily发布年度十大商业热点，将果蔬从传统农业形态向商业市场的极速迈进视为当下值得高度关注的热点趋势。在“果蔬大爆炸”的进程中，功能化、场景化、跨品类形态、现代保鲜与加工技术，都将成为新引擎。无论是CrushDynamics对葡萄果渣“脱胎换骨”式的再利用，还是众多初创企业、科研人员对于果蔬加工副产物价值的不懈挖掘与大胆尝试，都将成为果蔬产业热潮中值得借鉴与学习的极佳案例。参考文献：葡萄渣的综合利用分析研究，慕江静等，河北果树，2022洪厚胜,朱曼利,李伟,郭会明.葡萄果渣酵素的发酵工艺优化及其理化特性.食品科学,2019赵艳云,Jung Jooyeoun.果渣作功能性食品辅料和绿色包材原料的增值利用.中国食品学报,2017包涛涛,王勇强,罗奋强,雷帆.葡萄渣的综合利用分析研究，河北果，慕江静等，2022Towards integral utilization of grape pomace from winemaking process: A reviewAuthors, Carolina Beres et. 2017封面图来源：winentaste.com转载授权及媒体商务合作：Amy（微信号：13701559246）； 加入社群：Cherry（微信号：15262433826）。 相关阅读 食品人都“在看”