China Food

Behind the popularity of Wangwang: the changes of domestic snacks in the past 30 years


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Taking over “wild consumption” is more than just turning red.
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After Hongxing Erke gained “wild consumption” from netizens for public welfare, the “national snack” brand Wangwang recently took over the same story. In the afternoon of August 5, “Wangwang” related topics continued to ferment on social platforms and quickly reached the top of hot search. Up to now, the topic has been read by more than 1 billion people and triggered more than 367000 discussions.
At the same time, a large number of users also poured into the live broadcast room of Wangwang’s multiple accounts, which was broadcast on the 5th, leaving messages and placing orders in the interactive area. According to the data of cicada mother, the total number of viewers in the live broadcast room of “Wangwang food” reached 1.3 million, and the sales exceeded 1.2 million. The total number of viewers in the live broadcast room of “Wangwang food factory store” reached 1.2 million, and the sales exceeded 1.715 million.
Unlike the “wild consumption” encountered by hongxingerke and Baixiang before, Wangwang, as a “national snack” brand, has never been far from the sight of consumers. And when Wangwang’s popularity aroused the “archaeological” onlookers of netizens, it also involved the ups and downs of the domestic snack industry in the past 30 years.
1.0 era: brand Awakening
In the 1960s, when there was a shortage of materials, there was no concept of snacks. Candy and biscuits were “luxuries” that only appeared in the new year. In the 1970s, the material life was gradually enriched. Hand operated popcorn machines like “bombs” appeared on the roadside. The non-staple food shops began to sell white rabbit milk candy for export and domestic sales, and canned fruit and malt cream that were often used as supplements and only consumed when visiting patients and giving gifts.
In the 1980s, the rapid economic growth brought about by reform and opening up promoted the prosperity of national consumption. Small shops in schools and residential areas began to supply all kinds of bread, cakes, sweets and cold drinks. In the next ten years, the domestic snack market officially ushered in a new historical stage of blooming flowers.
There are preserved fruits and candied fruits, such as fruit dandy peel and nine system orange peel derived from traditional snacks, fig and huahuadan (commonly known as “mouse excrement”). The candy track has not only produced new products such as bubble gum and jumping candy, but also new and unique products such as brown sugar and diamond ring sugar, which are unique in product appearance design and can be eaten and played.
It is worth mentioning that during this period, the snack market was mainly dominated by category competition, and the snack manufacturers’ brand awareness was not strong, which also led to many products that were once popular disappearing in the category iteration and becoming “tears of the times” in the memory of the post-80s and post-90s.
As TV, as an important medium, enters ordinary families, and a number of Taiwan funded enterprises such as Wangwang, uni president and Master Kang enter the mainland market, domestic snacks have ushered in brand awakening. The advanced marketing of Taiwan funded enterprises is the fuse to awaken the brand awareness of domestic manufacturers.
Wangzai milk, which came into the market in 1996, has deeply engraved the brand into the memory of two generations of consumers by virtue of the magic TV advertisements of “I’ll drink you if you watch it again” and “classmate Li Ziming of class 2, grade 3”; Before and after the 1998 World Cup, Master Kang
At this time, in view of the traditional consumption habit of purchasing large quantities of peanuts, melon seeds and sweets in bulk during the Chinese Spring Festival, snack manufacturers also cooperated with large supermarkets to launch the sales method of bulk weighing. On the one hand, like brand counters, more products can be displayed and displayed at the sales terminals. On the other hand, it can also meet the category and taste preferences of different consumer groups through bulk sales, so as to maximize the purchase demand of consumers. Because it meets the purchase needs of consumers in terms of category and price, the sales method of bulk weighing also continues to this day.
In fact, the “counter mode” and bulk Weighing sales are only micro innovations within the channel. Brands still play the role of producers. They never expected that after 2000, the snack market would enter a new era due to the comprehensive reform of the channel.
In 2001, laiyifen, which is mainly engaged in speculation, was born in Shanghai. Unlike snacks such as biscuits and candies, fried food is often operated by its own stores because it emphasizes the characteristics of instant cooking. While Laifen continues to expand the categories of fried food, it begins to add bean products, dried fruits and vegetables, meat products, candy, jelly and other snacks. Laifen’s offline stores have “accidentally” developed into an offline retail channel covering all zero food categories.
Compared with the retail channel mode dominated by supermarkets, laiyifen’s snack franchise mode covering all categories caters to the needs of snack consumers and focuses more on the consumption experience, thus gradually gaining the favor of consumers. Laiyifen itself has also gradually changed from the original self-produced and self sold model based on speculation to the business model of product OEM and franchise chain channels.
Snacks can be sold without self production, and only need business channels and brands. This asset light business mode undoubtedly poses a great challenge to “Wangwang” traditional snack enterprises. The capital market is also quite optimistic about new players like laiyifen.
In 2010, Laifen took the lead in completing the shareholding reform, which attracted the high attention of many PE and VC. At that time, it was rumored that many well-known investment companies in the industry had broken their heads in order to grab the investment shares in Yifen, and choosing PE in Yifen was like a super girl audition. In December of the same year, liangpin shop developed in the same mode also obtained 51 million yuan investment of today’s capital with nearly 30% shares in the fourth year of the company’s establishment.
It is a little regrettable that Baicao flavor, which also followed Laifen’s steps to expand its chain scale, encountered an expansion bottleneck after opening its 100th store in 2009. However, later, Baicao flavor opened a new page for the domestic snack market.

3.0 era: new retail mixed with new consumption
Since 2010, the Internet has reshaped the traditional industry. The rise of online shopping platforms has provided new channels for the retail industry. The scale of offline chain stores that “laiyifen” are proud of has suffered “devaluation”. The birth of e-commerce shopping festivals such as “618” and “double 11” has also contributed more promotion nodes to the snack market except for the Spring Festival.
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The iteration of the snack market will not end in the Internet era. In 2016, after Ma Yun put forward the new retail concept, snack brands that actively transformed online in the past began to rethink the layout strategy of channels.
In particular, under the influence of new business forms such as local life, live e-commerce and social e-commerce, online traffic began to flow out from traditional e-commerce platforms. Brand flagship stores, which were originally used as sales outlets on major e-commerce platforms, not only began to reduce revenue with the decline of traffic, but also faced the cost increase caused by the rise of basic traffic prices. Therefore, brands have embarked on a new route of balanced development of online and offline Omni channels.
Unfortunately, the emergence of the “black swan” of the epidemic has made it more difficult for brands to lay out all channels. As of the first half of 2021, the three squirrels that started purely online have opened 941 three squirrels alliance stores and 163 food stores. However, the proportion of their online platform income to offline channel income is still as high as 7:3. Originally, from the offline chain to the online Baicao flavor, it will not open more than 20 offline stores until the first half of 2021. There are more traditional brands, which are wavering between online and offline channels.
However, will the next round of opportunities in the snack industry be the omni channel reform triggered by the new retail?
In recent years, the “Zero sugar, zero fat and low calorie” demand of generation Z has put forward new requirements for the field of fast food consumption. Taking advantage of the new consumption trend, products such as protein bars, Oatmeal Milk and functional soft candy have successively entered the consumers’ vision and written a moving story in the capital market. However, with the ebb of venture capital and the collective cooling of “new consumption”, the stories of many new consumer brands have not been written down, while the traditional snack brands have once again seized new opportunities.
The Institute learned that in recent years, Wangwang has covered coffee, energy drinks, instant rice noodles and other categories with the fastest growth in the market under the new consumption trend, and successively launched the young innovative beverage brand “bond”, the health nutrition brand “fix x body” and the spicy snack brand “Mr. hot”. It also began to try the omni channel layout, testing the traditional e-commerce, live e-commerce, vending machines, OEM, Wangzai Wangpu and other sales models. With the combination of rapid upgrading and omni channel layout, Wangwang’s business situation has also taken a turn for the better.
According to the latest financial report, Wangwang’s performance in 2021 increased by 9.0% year-on-year, reaching 23.985 billion yuan, a new high since its listing. At the same time, Wangwang achieved growth in all channels and three categories in Chinese Mainland in fy2021, and nearly 40% of the revenue from emerging channels came from new products.
Looking back at the changes of snack Jianghu in the past 30 years, we can find that products, brands and channels are the three most important factors for enterprise growth. Middle aged Wangwang takes over the “wild consumption”. Although it is an accidental phenomenon like hongxingerke and Baixiang, Wangwang has never been far away from the mainstream market. On the contrary, it is because of the accumulation of product cognition and brand reputation in the past and the current online channel layout that Wangwang has successfully undertaken the huge traffic brought by Italian fanhong,
Behind the popularity of Wangwang: the changes of domestic snacks in the past 30 years
吃到互联网红利的零食品牌也不止百草味。2012年,洞察到互联网渠道优势的良品铺子计划转型线上,陆续开辟了天猫、京东等几十个主要的线上电商渠道,并逐步收获转型成功。2016年,良品铺子的线上业务收入达到14.25亿,同比增长72.7%,线上业务收入在总收入中的占比也从2015年的26.53%增长至2016年末的33.69%。
不过,比起对传统实体经济的转型作用,互联网的造富神话更容易引人关注。
2011年,食品行业出身的章燎原创建詹氏公司网络坚果子品牌“壳壳果”,8个月完成了1000万销售额。一年以后,章燎原自立门户,采用纯线上经营模式,主打高端坚果的三只松鼠上线,先后获得IDG资本和今日资本总计超过2100万美元的融资。
资本和流量的加持下,纯网络零食品牌的经营模式讲出了格外生动的商业故事。
2012年,三只松鼠首次参加“双11”大促,单日销售达766万,刷新了天猫食品行业单天日销售额最高纪录,名列零食特产类销售第一名。2013年,三只松鼠的全网年销售突破3亿元,到2016年,销售额已经突破5亿元。
至此,三只松鼠、良品铺子和百草味形成三足鼎立之势,被并称为互联网休闲零食三巨头,也将中国的零食市场带入互联网时代,但并非所有传统企业都像良品铺子一样嗅觉敏锐。
旺旺、康师傅和统一等传统零食品牌面对互联网渠道的爆发式增长不为所动,仍然依赖于传统线下渠道,错过了发展线上业务的窗口期,于是在2014年集体迎来市值巅峰后陷入增长停滞。其中旺旺在2015到2019财年的营收始终徘徊在200亿元上下,连续4年出现低增长。
零食市场的迭代不会在互联网时代结束。2016年,马云提出新零售概念后,过去积极转型线上的零食品牌们,又开始重新反思渠道的布局策略。
特别是在本地生活、直播电商、社交电商等全新商业形态的影响下,线上流量开始从传统电商平台外流,原本在各大电商平台作为销售入口的品牌旗舰店,不但随着流量的下滑开始收入减少,还面临着基础流量价格上涨带来的成本增加。于是,品牌们纷纷走上了线上线下全渠道均衡发展的新路线。
不幸的是疫情“黑天鹅”的出现,提高了品牌们布局全渠道的难度。纯线上起家的三只松鼠,截至2021年上半年,开出了941家三只松鼠联盟店,163家投食店,但其线上平台收入与线下渠道收入的占比依旧高达7:3。原本从线下连锁全面转型线上的百草味,直到2021年上半年才开出20余家线下门店。还有更多传统品牌,在线上线下渠道之间摇摆不定。
但是,零食行业下一轮机会一定就是新零售掀起的全渠道变革吗?
近几年,Z世代人群的“0糖0脂低卡”需求对食品快消领域提出了新的要求,蛋白棒、燕麦奶、功能性软糖等产品乘着新消费的东风,陆续进入消费者的视野,在资本市场写下了一个个动人的故事。但是,随着风投退潮、“新消费”集体降温,不少新消费品牌的故事写到一半没有了下文,而传统零食品牌却再次抓住了新机会。
惊蛰研究所了解到,旺旺近几年覆盖新消费风潮下市场增长最快的咖啡、能量饮料、速食米面等品类,陆续推出了年轻化创新饮料品牌“邦德”、健康营养品牌“Fix x Body”以及辣味零食品牌“Mr. Hot”等。也开始尝试全渠道布局,试水传统电商、直播电商到自动售货机、OEM代工、旺仔旺铺等销售模式。在快速上新和全渠道布局的结合下,旺旺的经营状况也出现了转机。
据最新的财报显示,旺旺2021年业绩同比增长9.0%,达239.85亿元,创上市以来业绩新高。同时旺旺2021财年在中国大陆境内全渠道、三大品类业绩均实现增长,新兴渠道的收益近四成来自新品。
回顾零食江湖的三十年变迁会发现,产品、品牌和渠道是企业成长最重要的三个因素。中年旺旺接棒“野性消费”,虽然和鸿星尔克、白象一样都是偶然现象,但旺旺从未真正远离过主流市场,反倒是因为过去在产品认知和品牌口碑上积累,和眼下的线上渠道布局,顺利承接了意外翻红带来的巨大流量,并且将其转化为销售额。
商场如战场,“旧王驾崩,新王登基”的剧情时有发生,但品牌翻红绝不只是因为它曾经红过。当“野性消费”不断上演,背后的原因反而更值得注意。
作者:白露;来源:惊蛰研究所(ID:jingzheyanjiusuo),转载已获得授权。
转载授权及媒体商务合作:Amy(微信号:13701559246);
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