China Food

Why does Li Ning’s yellow rice wine brew “Guochao” fragrance?


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If
yellow rice wine wants to return to the table of the public, the change of taste, the upgrading of brand and the innovation of marketing are indispensable. As the representative of Chinese traditional culture for thousands of years, yellow rice wine still has advantages and is waiting to be awakened and rejuvenated.
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After thousands of years of ups and downs, yellow rice wine, a good wine integrating national characteristics and health preservation, has become active again driven by new consumption.
A few days ago, Li Ning, the founder of Li Ning brand, formally entered the yellow rice wine industry, invested and launched the “Twelve readings” yellow rice wine. Li Ning, who is good at dealing with new consumption, also attracted the attention of the industry again.
Almost at the same time, the high-end yellow rice wine brand “banquet Taihu” also announced the completion of round a financing, with an estimated value of about 200 million yuan. It is worth noting that Han Huiru, the actual controller of Dongfang iron tower, a listed company, is among the investors.
Yellow rice wine is one of the oldest kinds of wine in China. It is also known as the world’s three ancient wines together with beer and wine. The “wine” used by literati to drink and write poems is yellow rice wine.
In recent years, with the revival of the national tide, the rise of low alcohol wine and the homology of medicine and food, yellow rice wine is ushering in new opportunities. The guiding opinions on the development of China’s wine industry during the 14th five year plan clearly put forward the industrial development direction of “high-end, young and fashionable” for the yellow rice wine industry.
Now, yellow rice wine is waiting for a renaissance.
Li Ning, who is fond of national fashion, is eyeing yellow rice wine
Yellow rice wine originated in China and is only brewed in China. From “100 poems of Li Bai fighting wine” to “warming a bowl of wine” by Kong Yiji, yellow rice wine is a special wine for Chinese scholars in all dynasties. Guyuelongshan in Zhejiang has now become a state banquet wine in Diaoyutai.
If the emperors of all dynasties loved Jiangnan, Qianlong must be on the list. He went to Jiangnan six times before his death, leaving countless unofficial histories. Qianlong not only loved to play, but also liked to “punch in”. When he discovered good things, he liked to seal a chapter and write a word. He was jokingly called “the first person of the ancient and modern bullet screen”.
In 1784, at the age of 74, Qianlong could not bear loneliness and went to the south of the Yangtze River for the sixth time. When he visited the sword casting site of Mogan mountain and tasted the Shaofang wine of Nanwu at the north foot post station, Long Yan burst into joy, praising “the hidden good wine of Mogan mountain, and the green wine of shuibi mountain is fragrant”.
In 1790, Emperor Qianlong celebrated his 80th birthday. The whole country celebrated his birthday. Shaofang wine from Nanwu came to Beijing as a royal wine for Emperor Qianlong. Nanwu Shaofang wine is the predecessor of today’s twelve reading yellow rice wine. It has been passed on for more than 200 years.
It is understood that the twelve reading rice wine selects Taihu Jinchai glutinous rice as the fermentation raw grain, with the highest amylopectin content and lower fat content. The production process is also quite exquisite. After eight steps, such as rice soaking, rice steaming, rice drying, and falling tank fermentation, it is combined with the seasons, and follows the process of “making wine and medicine in summer, making wheat koji in autumn, preparing mother wine in winter, Xiaoxue feeding and raking, and pressing and frying wine in spring”. After years of storage, a pot of good yellow rice wine can be obtained.
Since time has passed, twelve readings yellow rice wine has once again entered the public’s view, thanks to Li Ning.
It is worth noting that twelve reading yellow
In the past, there was a saying of “South wine and North wine” in China. But in fact, the so-called “North wine” does not refer to Baijiu, but refers to all kinds of yellow rice wine produced in the north. At that time, Shanxi was an important producing area of yellow rice wine; The southern wine refers to the yellow rice wine produced with Jiangsu and Zhejiang as the core.
What Cao Cao said in “singing to wine, life geometry”, Tao Yuanming’s “if you want to say nothing more than harmony, wave to persuade the lonely shadow” and “Li Bai’s 100 poems on fighting wine” are all yellow rice wine. Wu Song fought the tiger after 18 bowls, not because he could drink well, but because he was weak.
At first, yellow rice wine was not “yellow”. Before the Tang Dynasty, grain fermented wine was still at a low stage. As a non distilled rice wine, during the brewing process of yellow rice wine, starch will release a large number of suspended particles under the dual effects of saccharification and fermentation, which will make the wine turbid. Therefore, the yellow rice wine at that time was also called “Turbid wine”. The so-called “a pot of turbid wine meets happily” refers to yellow rice wine.
The Tang Dynasty was a turning point. In terms of color, the yellow wine and amber wine of the Tang Dynasty have approached the appearance of modern yellow wine. After the development of the Song Dynasty, in the Yuan Dynasty, the brewing of Chinese fermented wine completely got rid of the problem of turbid wine and entered the stage of yellow rice wine.
Since the Yuan Dynasty, Baijiu has also entered the historical stage. As early as the Tang and Song Dynasties, there were scattered historical materials about “Shaojiu” and “steamed liquor”. However, before the Song Dynasty, Shaojiu did not belong to the category of distilled liquor, but refers to grain fermented liquor treated by low-temperature heating.
It is worth mentioning that for a long time, the fermented wine in China was always sweet. Until the song and Yuan Dynasties, the fermentation technology was improved, and finally the wine with relatively high alcohol content was produced. The wine flavor has also got rid of the single “sweet”, “strong”, “spicy”, “spicy” and “strong”.
However, the emergence of Baijiu did not immediately shake the status of yellow rice wine. In fact, for a long time, Baijiu was regarded as the existence of xialiba people and was not welcomed by literati. Until the beginning of modern times, the orthodox status of yellow rice wine began to loosen.
First, rice wine consumes too much grain. Since modern times, China has experienced a hundred years of war, and the grain output is very low, especially the millet and glutinous rice used for brewing rice wine. There is not enough food, let alone wine.
Although Baijiu also consumes food, Baijiu is highly adjustable and can be made by blending and other crops to produce edible alcohol.
Secondly, the changes of social strata have shaken the foundation of rice wine consumption. The consumption group of yellow rice wine has decreased sharply, and Baijiu has become the mainstream.
Finally, the war itself changed the pattern of the wine industry. After the outbreak of the war of resistance against Japan, the government of the Republic of China preferred Chongqing, and the wine industry in Southwest China was promoted. In addition, during the Long March, the red army passed by Yibin, Luzhou, Maotai and other places, which also protected the local wine industry.
In the view of Shen Kai, the descendant of the “Shen Yonghe” brand in Guyue Longshan and the founder of the fine wine brand “eight pints”, today’s yellow rice wine can be regarded as a historical relic, and basically only exists in a few families in Southeast China. “Yellow rice wine is equivalent to Beijing Opera and martial arts. It is indeed the quintessence of Chinese culture and a representative of traditional culture, but not many people really drink it.”
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The business income of the enterprise is low, and the lack of sufficient funds for R & D investment makes it difficult for yellow rice wine to get rid of the low-end production process. At present, the brewing process of Chinese rice wine is still based on traditional workshop production, lacking scientific and technological input and modernization.
Yellow rice wine is also facing the problem of aging. Both the image packaging and sales channels are not close to young people. According to the financial report of Guyue Longshan in 2021, its sales channel is still dominated by the dealer mode, and the wholesale sales account for 76%. Online sales account for only 6%.
In this way, yellow rice wine has fallen into a “strange circle” that is hard to crack: consumers’ failure to buy leads to low business income, which in turn leads to small investment in research and development, marketing, etc., continuous aging of products, feedback to the front end, and more sluggish consumption. Finally, a vicious circle is formed.
Although the development of the yellow rice wine industry is sluggish, both at the national level and at the enterprise level, efforts are being made to change.
In 2021, the guiding opinions on the development of China’s liquor industry during the 14th Five Year Plan period was released, which put forward the industrial development direction of “high-end, young and fashionable”, and clearly stated that it is necessary to “realize the value return of yellow rice wine”.
The high-end layout has long been launched. In recent years, many high-end products have been produced in the industry, such as guyuelongshan national brew 1959 (Ruby Version), Kuaijishan master Lanting, etc. with more than 1000 yuan, and national brew 1959 (Sapphire version), Kuaijishan Lanting, Kuaijishan national No. 1, etc. with 500-1000 yuan.
The high-end achievements are reflected in the financial report. According to the financial report of Guyue Longshan in 2021, the production and sales rate of high-end liquor reached 73.13%, accounting for 66.7% of the revenue, with a year-on-year increase of 27.3%. In contrast, the production and sales rate of ordinary liquor was only 37.96%, accounting for 33.3% of the revenue, with a year-on-year increase of 2.37%.
Compared with medium and high-grade liquor, the gross profit rate of guyuelongshan, Kuaijishan and Jinfeng liquor industry in 2021 is as high as 43.7%, 48.14% and 52.23% respectively, and the gross profit rate of ordinary yellow rice wine is basically below 30%.
Rejuvenation is another trend. In order to pry open the mouths of young people, yellow rice wine enterprises have come up with various tricks. Guyue Longshan has previously introduced rice wine popsicles, which are sweet, glutinous and delicious with a little wine flavor. They are often sold out in Shaoxing scenic spots. Kuaiji mountain and Guming jointly launched “Jiuxiang qinwulong” rice wine milk tea.
With the revival of national tide and the rise of low alcohol liquor, yellow rice wine enterprises have also enriched their product lines. In addition to rice wine, Guyue Longshan has developed fresh fruit wine and introduced green plum, sweet scented osmanthus and other fruit wines. The Luling King liquor industry in Hubei Province has directly combined yellow rice wine with bubbles to develop sparkling yellow rice wine, and the packaging is more national and fashionable.
epilogue
Whether it is under the banner of rejuvenation of the national tide or taking the route of cross-border cooperation. For yellow rice wine, the route from the minority to the public is not easy.
Shen Meng, executive director of Xiangsong capital, once pointed out that the difficulty in the nationalization of yellow rice wine is not the diversification of the layout or the rejuvenation, but the main problem is the consumption habits.
Yellow Wine
Why does Li Ning’s yellow rice wine brew “Guochao” fragrance?
据海通国际研报数据,2016年至2021年,我国规模以上黄酒企业营业收入由198.2亿元减少至127.2亿元,规模以上黄酒企业从112家减少至98家。
在沈恺看来,最大的问题是黄酒缺乏消费场景。高端商务局以白酒为主,偶尔也会有红酒,普通饭局聚餐以啤酒为主,餐饮消费场景中几乎无黄酒立锥之地。“也只有在吃大闸蟹、过端午节时能想起黄酒的存在。除了江南传统家庭喜欢喝黄酒,其他的消费场景几乎没有。”
其次,黄酒的定位也不够清晰。黄酒上能进国宴,下能进厨房。多样的消费场景,加上缺乏市场教育,模糊了消费者对黄酒的品类认知,小红书上关于黄酒的关键词既有“养生”、“功效”也有“美食”、“调料”。
还值得一提的是,尽管度数低,但黄酒杂醇含量高。这些醇类代谢速度远远慢于乙醇,摄入量高容易出现清醒了但仍头痛难受的现象。
沈恺还表示,传统黄酒的储存工艺与空气微微接触,微氧化的黄酒会有淡淡的中药药引的味道,这种味道不是所有人都能欣赏,也进一步遏制了黄酒的消费空间。
此外,黄酒的消费也受地域所限,中国知名黄酒企业几乎都出自江浙沪。古越龙山、会稽山、金枫酒业是中国仅有的三家黄酒上市公司,2020年三家在江浙沪的销量占比达84%。
低迷的消费导致黄酒难以像白酒、啤酒那样赚钱。据中国酒业协会数据,2021年规模以上黄酒企业累计完成销售收入127.17亿元,这个数字甚至不及茅台2022年一季度营收的1/3。
不赚钱的另一个原因在于黄酒客单价低。《2022年黄酒行业研究报告》显示,30元/瓶以下价位的市场容量仍旧占行业整体规模的65%以上。
企业营收低,缺乏足够资金进行研发投入,导致黄酒难以摆脱低端的生产工艺。目前,我国黄酒的酿造工艺仍以传统的作坊式生产为主,缺少科技投入和现代化更新。
黄酒也面临老化的问题,无论是形象包装还是销售渠道,都与年轻人不够贴近。古越龙山2021年财报显示,其销售渠道仍以经销商模式为主,批发的销售占比高达76%。线上销售占比仅有6%。
如此,黄酒便陷入难以破解的“怪圈”:消费者不买账导致企业营收低,进而造成研发、营销等投入小,产品持续老化,反馈到前端,消费更加低迷,最后形成恶性循环。
虽然黄酒行业发展低迷,但不管是从国家层面还是企业方面都在努力变革。
2021年,《中国酒业“十四五”发展指导意见》发布,提出了“高端化、年轻化、时尚化”的产业发展方向,并明确表示要“实现黄酒的价值回归”。
高端化布局早已展开,近几年行业诞生了不少高端产品,比如1000元以上的古越龙山国酿1959(红玉版)、会稽山大师兰亭等,500-1000元区间的国酿1959(青玉版)、会稽山兰亭、会稽山国1号等。
高端化的成绩反映在财报上。据古越龙山2021年财报显示,其中高档酒的产销率达73.13%,营收占比为66.7%,同比增长27.3%,反观普通酒的产销率只有37.96%,营收占比为33.3%,同比增长2.37%。
相比中高档酒的毛利率也较高,古越龙山、会稽山和金枫酒业2021年中高档酒的毛利率分别高达43.7%、48.14%和52.23%,普通黄酒的毛利率基本都在30%以下。
年轻化是另一趋势。为了撬开年轻人的嘴,黄酒企业花样百出。古越龙山此前推出黄酒冰棍,这种甜糯可口、带有一点酒味的棒冰,在绍兴景点中经常卖断货。会稽山则与古茗联名,推出“酒香沁乌龙”黄酒奶茶。
随着国潮复兴以及低度酒的兴起,黄酒企业们也丰富了产品线。古越龙山在黄酒之外,开发了清新果酒,推出青梅、桂花等果酒。湖北的庐陵王酒业更是直接将黄酒与气泡结合,研发出起泡黄酒,包装上也更加国风化、新潮化。
结语
无论是打国潮复兴的旗号,还是走跨界联名的路线。对黄酒而言,从小众到大众的路线并不好走。
香颂资本执行董事沈萌曾指出,黄酒全国化的难点不在于布局多元化或年轻化,主要问题在于消费习惯。
黄酒想要重回大众的餐桌,口感的更迭、品牌的升级、营销的创新等都不能少。作为千百年来中国传统文化代表,黄酒依旧有优势,在等待着被唤醒、焕新。
作者:青翎;来源:观潮新消费(ID:TideSight),转载已获得授权。
转载授权及媒体商务合作:Amy(微信号:13701559246);
加入社群:Cherry(微信号:15262433826)。

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